swh:1:snp:bbc0b94b1c0463480b615c86f1ae2df3fcc700c0
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Tip revision: 722dbd95a4352965cd1492a15c6e07ddbb073986 authored by Karline Soetaert on 13 November 2009, 00:00 UTC
version 1.2
Tip revision: 722dbd9
tran.2D.Rd
\name{tran.2D}
\alias{tran.2D}
\title{
  General Two-Dimensional Advective-Diffusive Transport
}

\description{
  Estimates the transport term (i.e. the rate of change of a concentration
  due to diffusion and advection) in a two-dimensional model domain.
}

\usage{
tran.2D ( C, C.x.up=C[1,], C.x.down=C[nrow(C),],
  C.y.up=C[,1], C.y.down=C[,ncol(C)],
  flux.x.up=NULL, flux.x.down=NULL, flux.y.up=NULL, flux.y.down=NULL,
  a.bl.x.up=NULL, C.bl.x.up=NULL, a.bl.x.down=NULL, C.bl.x.down=NULL,
  a.bl.y.up=NULL, C.bl.y.up=NULL, a.bl.y.down=NULL, C.bl.y.down=NULL,
  D.grid=NULL, D.x=NULL, D.y=D.x,
  v.grid=NULL, v.x=0, v.y=0,
  AFDW.grid=NULL, AFDW.x=1, AFDW.y=AFDW.x,
  VF.grid=NULL,VF.x=1, VF.y=VF.x,
  A.grid=NULL, A.x=1, A.y=1,
  grid=NULL, dx=NULL, dy=NULL,
  full.check = FALSE, full.output = FALSE)
}

\arguments{
  \item{C }{concentration, expressed per unit volume, defined at the centre
    of each grid cell; Nx*Ny matrix [M/L3].
  }
  \item{C.x.up }{concentration at upstream boundary in x-direction;
    vector of length Ny [M/L3].
  }
  \item{C.x.down }{concentration at downstream boundary in x-direction;
    vector of length Ny [M/L3].
  }
  \item{C.y.up }{concentration at upstream boundary in y-direction;
    vector of length Nx [M/L3].
  }
  \item{C.y.down }{concentration at downstream boundary in y-direction;
    vector of length Nx [M/L3].
  }
  \item{flux.x.up }{flux across the upstream boundary in x-direction,
    positive = INTO model domain; vector of length Ny [M/L2/T].
  }
  \item{flux.x.down }{flux across the downstream boundary in x-direction,
    positive = OUT of model domain; vector of length Ny [M/L2/T].
  }
  \item{flux.y.up }{flux across the upstream boundary in y-direction,
    positive = INTO model domain; vector of length Nx [M/L2/T].
  }
  \item{flux.y.down }{flux across the downstream boundary in y-direction,
    positive = OUT of model domain; vector of length Nx [M/L2/T].
  }
  \item{a.bl.x.up }{transfer coefficient across the upstream boundary layer.
     in x-direction;

     \code{Flux=a.bl.x.up*(C.bl.x.up-C[1,])}. One value [L/T].
  }
  \item{C.bl.x.up }{concentration at the upstream boundary layer
    in x-direction; vector of length Ny  [M/L3].
  }
  \item{a.bl.x.down }{transfer coefficient across the downstream boundary
    layer in x-direction;

    \code{Flux=a.bl.x.down*(C[Nx,]-C.bl.x.down)}.
    One value [L/T].
  }
  \item{C.bl.x.down }{concentration at the downstream boundary layer
    in x-direction ; vector of length Ny  [M/L3].
  }
  \item{a.bl.y.up }{transfer coefficient across the upstream boundary layer.
     in y-direction;

     \code{Flux=a.bl.y.up*(C.bl.y.up-C[,1])}. One value [L/T].
  }
  \item{C.bl.y.up }{concentration at the upstream boundary layer
    in y-direction; vector of length Nx  [M/L3].
  }
  \item{a.bl.y.down }{transfer coefficient across the downstream boundary
    layer in y-direction;

    \code{Flux=a.bl.y.down*(C[,Ny]-C.bl.y.down)}.
    One value [L/T].
  }
  \item{C.bl.y.down }{concentration at the downstream boundary layer
    in y-direction ; vector of length Nx  [M/L3].
  }
  \item{D.grid }{diffusion coefficient defined on all grid cell
    interfaces. A \code{prop.2D} list created by \code{\link{setup.prop.2D}} [L2/T].
  }
  \item{D.x }{diffusion coefficient in x-direction, defined on grid cell
    interfaces. One value, a vector of length (Nx+1),
    a \code{prop.1D} list created by \code{\link{setup.prop.1D}},
    or a (Nx+1)* Ny matrix [L2/T].
  }
  \item{D.y }{diffusion coefficient in y-direction, defined on grid cell
    interfaces. One value, a vector of length (Ny+1),
    a \code{prop.1D} list created by \code{\link{setup.prop.1D}},
    or a Nx*(Ny+1) matrix [L2/T].
  }
  \item{v.grid }{advective velocity defined on all grid cell
    interfaces. Can be positive (downstream flow) or negative (upstream flow).
    A \code{prop.2D} list created by \code{\link{setup.prop.2D}} [L/T].
  }
  \item{v.x }{advective velocity in the x-direction, defined on grid cell
    interfaces. Can be positive (downstream flow) or negative (upstream flow).
    One value, a vector of length (Nx+1),
    a \code{prop.1D} list created by \code{\link{setup.prop.1D}},
    or a (Nx+1)*Ny matrix [L/T].
  }
  \item{v.y }{advective velocity in the y-direction, defined on grid cell
    interfaces. Can be positive (downstream flow) or negative (upstream flow).
    One value, a vector of length (Ny+1),
    a \code{prop.1D} list created by \code{\link{setup.prop.1D}},
    or a Nx*(Ny+1) matrix [L/T].
  }
  \item{AFDW.grid }{weight used in the finite difference scheme for advection
    in the x-direction, defined on grid cell interfaces; backward = 1,
    centred = 0.5, forward = 0; default is backward.
    A \code{prop.2D} list created by \code{\link{setup.prop.2D}} [-].
  }
  \item{AFDW.x }{weight used in the finite difference scheme for advection
    in the x-direction, defined on grid cell interfaces; backward = 1,
    centred = 0.5, forward = 0; default is backward.
    One value, a vector of length (Nx+1),
    a \code{prop.1D} list created by \code{\link{setup.prop.1D}},
    or a (Nx+1)*Ny matrix [-].
  }
  \item{AFDW.y }{weight used in the finite difference scheme for advection
    in the y-direction, defined on grid cell interfaces; backward = 1,
    centred = 0.5, forward = 0; default is backward.
    One value, a vector of length (Ny+1),
    a \code{prop.1D} list created by \code{\link{setup.prop.1D}},
    or a Nx*(Ny+1) matrix [-].
  }
  \item{VF.grid }{Volume fraction. A \code{prop.2D} list created by
    \code{\link{setup.prop.2D}} [-].
  }
  \item{VF.x }{Volume fraction at the grid cell interfaces in the x-direction.
    One value, a vector of length (Nx+1),
    a \code{prop.1D} list created by \code{\link{setup.prop.1D}},
    or a (Nx+1)*Ny matrix [-].
  }
  \item{VF.y }{Volume fraction at the grid cell interfaces in the y-direction.
    One value, a vector of length (Ny+1),
    a \code{prop.1D} list created by \code{\link{setup.prop.1D}},
    or a Nx*(Ny+1) matrix [-].
  }
  \item{A.grid }{Interface area. A \code{prop.2D} list created by
    \code{\link{setup.prop.2D}} [L2].
  }
  \item{A.x }{Interface area defined at the grid cell interfaces in
    the x-direction. One value, a vector of length (Nx+1),
    a \code{prop.1D} list created by \code{\link{setup.prop.1D}},
    or a (Nx+1)*Ny matrix [L2].
  }
  \item{A.y }{Interface area defined at the grid cell interfaces in
    the y-direction. One value, a vector of length (Ny+1),
    a \code{prop.1D} list created by \code{\link{setup.prop.1D}},
    or a Nx*(Ny+1) matrix [L2].
  }
  \item{dx }{distance between adjacent cell interfaces in the x-direction
    (thickness of grid cells). One value or vector of length Nx [L].
  }
  \item{dy }{distance between adjacent cell interfaces in the y-direction
    (thickness of grid cells). One value or vector of length Ny [L].
  }
  \item{grid }{discretization grid, a list containing at least elements
    \code{dx}, \code{dx.aux}, \code{dy}, \code{dy.aux}
    (see \code{\link{setup.grid.2D}}) [L].
  }
  \item{full.check }{logical flag enabling a full check of the consistency
    of the arguments (default = \code{FALSE}; \code{TRUE} slows down
    execution by 50 percent).
  }
  \item{full.output }{logical flag enabling a full return of the output
    (default = \code{FALSE}; \code{TRUE} slows down execution by 20 percent).
  }
}
\value{
  a list containing:
  \item{dC }{the rate of change of the concentration C due to transport,
    defined in the centre of each grid cell, a Nx*Ny matrix. [M/L3/T].
  }
  \item{C.x.up }{concentration at the upstream interface in x-direction.
    A vector of length Ny [M/L3]. Only when \code{full.output = TRUE}.
  }
  \item{C.x.down }{concentration at the downstream interface in x-direction.
    A vector of length Ny [M/L3]. Only when \code{full.output = TRUE}.
  }
  \item{C.y.up }{concentration at the the upstream interface in y-direction.
    A vector of length Nx [M/L3].  Only when \code{full.output = TRUE}.
  }
  \item{C.y.down }{concentration at the downstream interface in y-direction.
    A vector of length Nx [M/L3]. Only when \code{full.output = TRUE}.
  }
  \item{x.flux }{flux across the interfaces in x-direction of the grid cells.
    A (Nx+1)*Ny matrix  [M/L2/T]. Only when \code{full.output = TRUE}.
  }
  \item{y.flux }{flux across the interfaces in y-direction of the grid cells.
    A Nx*(Ny+1) matrix [M/L2/T].  Only when \code{full.output = TRUE}.
  }
  \item{flux.x.up }{flux across the upstream boundary in x-direction,
    positive = INTO model domain. A vector of length Ny [M/L2/T].
  }
  \item{flux.x.down }{flux across the downstream boundary in x-direction,
    positive = OUT of model domain. A vector of length Ny [M/L2/T].
  }
  \item{flux.y.up }{flux across the upstream boundary in y-direction,
    positive = INTO model domain. A vector of length Nx [M/L2/T].
  }
  \item{flux.y.down }{flux across the downstream boundary in y-direction,
    positive = OUT of model domain. A vector of length Nx [M/L2/T].
  }

}

\author{
  Filip Meysman <f.meysman@nioo.knaw.nl>,
  Karline Soetaert <k.soetaert@nioo.knaw.nl>
}

\examples{
## =============================================================================
## Testing the functions
## =============================================================================
# Parameters
F        <- 100             # input flux [micromol cm-2 yr-1]
por      <- 0.8             # constant porosity
D        <- 400             # mixing coefficient [cm2 yr-1]
v        <- 1               # advective velocity [cm yr-1]

# Grid definition
x.N <- 4   # number of cells in x-direction
y.N <- 6   # number of cells in y-direction
x.L <- 8   # domain size x-direction [cm]
y.L <- 24  # domain size y-direction [cm]
dx  <- x.L/x.N             # cell size x-direction [cm]
dy  <- y.L/y.N             # cell size y-direction [cm]
 
# Intial conditions 
C <- matrix(nrow=x.N, ncol=y.N, data=0, byrow=FALSE)

# Boundary conditions: fixed concentration  
C.x.up <- rep(1, times=y.N)
C.x.down <- rep(0, times=y.N)
C.y.up   <- rep(1, times=x.N)
C.y.down <- rep(0, times=x.N)

# Only diffusion 
tran.2D(full.output=TRUE, C=C, D.x=D, D.y=D, v.x=0, v.y=0,
  VF.x=por, VF.y=por, dx=dx, dy=dy,
  C.x.up=C.x.up, C.x.down=C.x.down,
  C.y.up=C.y.up,C.y.down=C.y.down)

# Strong advection, backward (default), central and forward 
#finite difference schemes 
tran.2D(C=C, D.x=D, v.x=100*v, VF.x=por, dx=dx, dy=dy,
  C.x.up=C.x.up, C.x.down=C.x.down, C.y.up=C.y.up, C.y.down=C.y.down)
  
tran.2D(AFDW.x=0.5, C=C, D.x=D, v.x=100*v, VF.x=por, dx=dx, dy=dy,
  C.x.up=C.x.up, C.x.down=C.x.down, C.y.up=C.y.up, C.y.down=C.y.down)

tran.2D(AFDW.x=0, C=C, D.x=D, v.x=100*v, VF.x=por, dx=dx, dy=dy,
  C.x.up=C.x.up, C.x.down=C.x.down, C.y.up=C.y.up, C.y.down=C.y.down)

# Boundary conditions: fixed fluxes 

flux.x.up <- rep(200, times=y.N)
flux.x.down <- rep(-200, times=y.N)
flux.y.up <- rep(200, times=x.N)
flux.y.down <- rep(-200, times=x.N)
tran.2D(C=C, D.x=D, v.x=0, VF.x=por, dx=dx, dy=dy,
  flux.x.up=flux.x.up, flux.x.down=flux.x.down,
  flux.y.up=flux.y.up, flux.y.down=flux.y.down)

# Boundary conditions: convective boundary layer on all sides

a.bl <- 800   # transfer coefficient
C.bl.x.up <- rep(1, times=(y.N)) # fixed conc at boundary layer
C.bl.y.up <- rep(1, times=(x.N)) # fixed conc at boundary layer
tran.2D(full.output=TRUE, C=C, D.x=D, v.x=0, VF.x=por,
  dx=dx, dy=dy, C.bl.x.up=C.bl.x.up, a.bl.x.up=a.bl, C.bl.x.down=C.bl.x.up,
  a.bl.x.down=a.bl, C.bl.y.up=C.bl.y.up, a.bl.y.up=a.bl,
  C.bl.y.down=C.bl.y.up, a.bl.y.down=a.bl)

# Runtime test with and without argument checking

n.iterate <-1000

test1 <- function()
{
for (i in 1:n.iterate )
ST<-tran.2D(full.check=TRUE,C=C,D.x=D,v.x=0,VF.x=por,
dx=dx,dy=dy,C.bl.x.up=C.bl.x.up,a.bl.x.up=a.bl,C.x.down=C.x.down)
} 
system.time(test1())

test2 <- function()
{
for (i in 1:n.iterate )
ST<-tran.2D(full.output=TRUE,C=C,D.x=D,v.x=0,VF.x=por,
dx=dx,dy=dy,C.bl.x.up=C.bl.x.up,a.bl.x.up=a.bl,C.x.down=C.x.down)
} 
system.time(test2())

test3 <- function()
{
for (i in 1:n.iterate )
ST<-tran.2D(full.output=TRUE,full.check=TRUE,C=C,D.x=D,v.x=0,
VF.x=por,dx=dx,dy=dy,C.bl.x.up=C.bl.x.up,a.bl.x.up=a.bl,C.x.down=C.x.down)
} 
system.time(test3())

## =============================================================================
## A 2-D model with diffusion in x- and y direction and first-order
## consumption
## =============================================================================

N     <- 51          # number of grid cells
XX    <- 10           # total size
dy    <- dx <- XX/N  # grid size
Dy    <- Dx <- 0.1   # diffusion coeff, X- and Y-direction
r     <- 0.005       # consumption rate
ini   <- 1           # initial value at x=0

N2  <- ceiling(N/2)
X   <- seq (dx,by=dx,len=(N2-1))
X   <- c(-rev(X),0,X)

# The model equations

Diff2D <- function (t,y,parms)  {
  CONC  <- matrix(nr=N,nc=N,y)
  dCONC <- tran.2D(CONC, D.x=Dx, D.y=Dy, dx=dx, dy=dy)$dC + r * CONC
  return (list(as.vector(dCONC)))
}

# initial condition: 0 everywhere, except in central point
y <- matrix(nr=N,nc=N,data=0)
y[N2,N2] <- ini  # initial concentration in the central point...

# solve for 10 time units
times <- 0:10
out <- ode.2D (y=y, func=Diff2D, t=times, parms=NULL,
                dim = c(N,N), lrw = 160000)

pm <- par (mfrow=c(2,2))

# Compare solution with analytical solution...
for (i in seq(2,11,by=3))
{
  tt <- times[i]
  mat  <-  matrix(nr=N,nc=N,out[i,-1])
  plot(X,mat[N2,],type="l",main=paste("time=",times[i]),
       ylab="Conc",col="red")
  ana <- ini*dx^2/(4*pi*Dx*tt)*exp(r*tt-X^2/(4*Dx*tt))
  points(X,ana,pch="+")
}
legend ("bottom", col=c("red","black"), lty=c(1,NA), pch=c(NA,"+"),
        c("tran.2D","exact"))
par("mfrow"=pm )

}

\references{
  Soetaert and Herman, 2009. a practical guide to ecological modelling -
  using R as a simulation platform. Springer
}

\details{
  The \bold{boundary conditions} are either
  \itemize{
    \item (1) zero-gradient
    \item (2) fixed concentration
    \item (3) convective boundary layer
    \item (4) fixed flux
  }
  This is also the order of priority. The zero gradient is the default,
  the fixed flux overrules all other.
}  

\keyword{utilities}

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