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geodesic_mesh.h
#ifndef GEODESIC_MESH
#define GEODESIC_MESH

#include "stdafx.h"

#include "geodesic_mesh_elements.h"
#include "geodesic_memory.h"
#include "geodesic_constants_and_simple_functions.h"

namespace geodesic{

class Mesh
{
public:
	Mesh(){};

	~Mesh(){};

	template<class Points, class Faces>
	void initialize_mesh_data(unsigned num_vertices,
							  Points& p, 
							  unsigned num_faces,
							  Faces& tri);		//build mesh from regular point-triangle representation

	template<class Points, class Faces>
	void initialize_mesh_data(Points& p, Faces& tri);		//build mesh from regular point-triangle representation

	std::vector<Vertex>& vertices(){return m_vertices;};
	std::vector<Edge>&   edges()   {return m_edges;};
	std::vector<Face>&   faces()   {return m_faces;};

private:

	void build_adjacencies();		//build internal structure of the mesh
	bool verify();					//verifies connectivity of the mesh and prints some debug info

	typedef void* void_pointer;
	void_pointer allocate_pointers(unsigned n) 
	{
		return m_pointer_allocator.allocate(n); 
	}

	std::vector<Vertex> m_vertices;
	std::vector<Edge>   m_edges;
	std::vector<Face>   m_faces;

	SimlpeMemoryAllocator<void_pointer> m_pointer_allocator;	//fast memory allocating for Face/Vertex/Edge cross-references
};

template<class Points, class Faces>
void Mesh::initialize_mesh_data(Points& p, Faces& tri)		//build mesh from regular point-triangle representation
{
	assert(p.size() % 3 == 0);
	unsigned const num_vertices = p.size() / 3;
	assert(tri.size() % 3 == 0);
	unsigned const num_faces = tri.size() / 3; 

	initialize_mesh_data(num_vertices, p, num_faces, tri);
}

template<class Points, class Faces>
void Mesh::initialize_mesh_data(unsigned num_vertices,
								Points& p, 
								unsigned num_faces,
								Faces& tri)
{
	unsigned const approximate_number_of_internal_pointers = (num_vertices + num_faces) * 4;
	unsigned const max_number_of_pointer_blocks = 100; 
	m_pointer_allocator.reset(approximate_number_of_internal_pointers, 
							  max_number_of_pointer_blocks);

	m_vertices.resize(num_vertices);
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < num_vertices; ++i)		//copy coordinates to vertices
	{
		Vertex& v = m_vertices[i];
		v.id() = i;

		unsigned shift = 3 * i;
		v.x() = p[shift];
		v.y() = p[shift + 1];
		v.z() = p[shift + 2];
	}

	m_faces.resize(num_faces);
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < num_faces; ++i)		//copy adjacent vertices to polygons/faces
	{
		Face& f = m_faces[i];
		f.id() = i;
		f.adjacent_vertices().set_allocation(allocate_pointers(3),3);	//allocate three units of memory

		unsigned shift = 3 * i;
		for(unsigned j = 0; j < 3; ++j)
		{
			unsigned vertex_index = tri[shift + j];
			//unsigned vertex_index = tri[shift + j] - 1;// The vertex index may start from 1
			assert(vertex_index < num_vertices);
			f.adjacent_vertices()[j] = &m_vertices[vertex_index];
		}
	}

	build_adjacencies();	//build the structure of the mesh
}

inline void Mesh::build_adjacencies()
{
	//	Vertex->adjacent Faces
	std::vector<unsigned> count(m_vertices.size());	//count adjacent vertices
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_faces.size(); ++i)
	{
		Face& f = m_faces[i];
		for(unsigned j = 0; j < 3; ++j)
		{
			unsigned vertex_id = f.adjacent_vertices()[j]->id();
			assert(vertex_id < m_vertices.size());
			count[vertex_id]++;
		}
	}

	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_vertices.size(); ++i)		//reserve space
	{
		Vertex& v = m_vertices[i];
		unsigned num_adjacent_faces = count[i];

		v.adjacent_faces().set_allocation(allocate_pointers(num_adjacent_faces),		//allocate three units of memory
										  num_adjacent_faces);	
	}

	std::fill(count.begin(), count.end(), 0);
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_faces.size(); ++i)
	{
		Face& f = m_faces[i];
		for(unsigned j = 0; j < 3; ++j)
		{
			vertex_pointer v = f.adjacent_vertices()[j];
			v->adjacent_faces()[count[v->id()]++] = &f;
		}
	}

	//find all edges
	//i.e. find all half-edges, sort and combine them into edges
	std::vector<HalfEdge> half_edges(m_faces.size() * 3);
	unsigned k = 0;
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_faces.size(); ++i)
	{
		Face& f = m_faces[i];
		for(unsigned j = 0; j < 3; ++j)
		{
			half_edges[k].face_id = i;
			unsigned vertex_id_1 = f.adjacent_vertices()[j]->id();
			unsigned vertex_id_2 = f.adjacent_vertices()[(j+1) % 3]->id();
			half_edges[k].vertex_0 = std::min(vertex_id_1, vertex_id_2);
			half_edges[k].vertex_1 = std::max(vertex_id_1, vertex_id_2);

			k++;	
		}
	}
	std::sort(half_edges.begin(), half_edges.end());

	unsigned number_of_edges = 1;
	for(unsigned i = 1; i < half_edges.size(); ++i)
	{
		if(half_edges[i] != half_edges[i-1])
		{
			++number_of_edges;
		}
		else
		{
			if(i<half_edges.size()-1)		//sanity check: there should be at most two equal half-edges
			{								//if it fails, most likely the input data are messed up
				assert(half_edges[i] != half_edges[i+1]);
			}
		}
	}

	// Edges->adjacent Vertices and Faces
	m_edges.resize(number_of_edges);
	unsigned edge_id = 0;
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < half_edges.size();)
	{
		Edge& e = m_edges[edge_id];
		e.id() = edge_id++;

		e.adjacent_vertices().set_allocation(allocate_pointers(2),2);		//allocate two units of memory

		e.adjacent_vertices()[0] = &m_vertices[half_edges[i].vertex_0];
		e.adjacent_vertices()[1] = &m_vertices[half_edges[i].vertex_1];

		e.length() = e.adjacent_vertices()[0]->distance(e.adjacent_vertices()[1]);
		assert(e.length() > 1e-100);		//algorithm works well with non-degenerate meshes only 

		if(i != half_edges.size()-1 && half_edges[i] == half_edges[i+1])	//double edge
		{
			e.adjacent_faces().set_allocation(allocate_pointers(2),2);
			e.adjacent_faces()[0] = &m_faces[half_edges[i].face_id];
			e.adjacent_faces()[1] = &m_faces[half_edges[i+1].face_id];
			i += 2;
		}
		else			//single edge
		{
			e.adjacent_faces().set_allocation(allocate_pointers(1),1);		//one adjucent faces
			e.adjacent_faces()[0] = &m_faces[half_edges[i].face_id];
			i += 1;
		}
	}

	// Vertices->adjacent Edges
	std::fill(count.begin(), count.end(), 0);
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_edges.size(); ++i)
	{
		Edge& e = m_edges[i];
		assert(e.adjacent_vertices().size()==2);
		count[e.adjacent_vertices()[0]->id()]++;
		count[e.adjacent_vertices()[1]->id()]++;
	}
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_vertices.size(); ++i)
	{
		m_vertices[i].adjacent_edges().set_allocation(allocate_pointers(count[i]),
													  count[i]);	
	}
	std::fill(count.begin(), count.end(), 0);
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_edges.size(); ++i)
	{
		Edge& e = m_edges[i];
		for(unsigned j = 0; j < 2; ++j)
		{
			vertex_pointer v = e.adjacent_vertices()[j];
			v->adjacent_edges()[count[v->id()]++] = &e;
		}
	}	

	// Faces->adjacent Edges
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_faces.size(); ++i)
	{
		m_faces[i].adjacent_edges().set_allocation(allocate_pointers(3),3);	
	}

	count.resize(m_faces.size());
	std::fill(count.begin(), count.end(), 0);
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_edges.size(); ++i)
	{
		Edge& e = m_edges[i];
		for(unsigned j = 0; j < e.adjacent_faces().size(); ++j)
		{
			face_pointer f = e.adjacent_faces()[j];
			assert(count[f->id()]<3);
			f->adjacent_edges()[count[f->id()]++] = &e;
		}
	}	

	// compute angles for the faces
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_faces.size(); ++i)
	{
		Face& f = m_faces[i];
		double abc[3];		
		double sum = 0;
		for(unsigned j = 0; j < 3; ++j)		//compute angle adjacent to the vertex j
		{
			for(unsigned k = 0; k < 3; ++k)
			{
				vertex_pointer v = f.adjacent_vertices()[(j + k)%3];
				abc[k] = f.opposite_edge(v)->length();
			}

			double angle = angle_from_edges(abc[0], abc[1], abc[2]);
			assert(angle>1e-5);						//algorithm works well with non-degenerate meshes only 
			if (angle < 1e-5)
				std::cout<< "degenerate mesh" << std::endl;

			f.corner_angles()[j] = angle;
			sum += angle;
		}
		assert(std::abs(sum - M_PI) < 1e-5);		//algorithm works well with non-degenerate meshes only
	}

	// define m_turn_around_flag for vertices
	std::vector<double> total_vertex_angle(m_vertices.size());
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_faces.size(); ++i)
	{
		Face& f = m_faces[i];
		for(unsigned j = 0; j < 3; ++j)
		{
			vertex_pointer v = f.adjacent_vertices()[j];
			total_vertex_angle[v->id()] += f.corner_angles()[j];
		}
	}

	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_vertices.size(); ++i)
	{
		Vertex& v = m_vertices[i];
		v.saddle_or_boundary() = (total_vertex_angle[v.id()] > 2.0*M_PI - 1e-5); 
	}

	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_edges.size(); ++i)
	{
		Edge& e = m_edges[i];
		if(e.is_boundary())
		{
			e.adjacent_vertices()[0]->saddle_or_boundary() = true;
			e.adjacent_vertices()[1]->saddle_or_boundary() = true;
		}
	}

	assert(verify());
}

inline bool Mesh::verify()		//verifies connectivity of the mesh and prints some debug info
{
	std::cout << std::endl;
	// make sure that all vertices are mentioned at least once. 
	// though the loose vertex is not a bug, it most likely indicates that something is wrong with the mesh
	std::vector<bool> map(m_vertices.size(), false);
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_edges.size(); ++i)
	{
		edge_pointer e = &m_edges[i];
		map[e->adjacent_vertices()[0]->id()] = true;
		map[e->adjacent_vertices()[1]->id()] = true;
	}
	assert(std::find(map.begin(), map.end(), false) == map.end());

	//make sure that the mesh is connected trough its edges
	//if mesh has more than one connected component, it is most likely a bug
	std::vector<face_pointer> stack(1,&m_faces[0]);
	stack.reserve(m_faces.size());

	map.resize(m_faces.size());
	std::fill(map.begin(), map.end(), false);
	map[0] = true;

	while(!stack.empty())
	{
		face_pointer f = stack.back();
		stack.pop_back();

		for(unsigned i = 0; i < 3; ++i)
		{
			edge_pointer e = f->adjacent_edges()[i];
			face_pointer f_adjacent = e->opposite_face(f);
			if(f_adjacent && !map[f_adjacent->id()])
			{
				map[f_adjacent->id()] = true;
				stack.push_back(f_adjacent);
			}
		}
	}
	assert(std::find(map.begin(), map.end(), false) == map.end());

	//print some mesh statistics that can be useful in debugging
	std::cout << "mesh has "	<< m_vertices.size() 
			  << " vertices, "	<< m_faces.size() 
			  << " faces, "		<< m_edges.size() 
			  << " edges\n";
	
	unsigned total_boundary_edges = 0;
	double longest_edge = 0;
	double shortest_edge = 1e100;
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_edges.size(); ++i)
	{
		Edge& e = m_edges[i];
		total_boundary_edges += e.is_boundary() ? 1 : 0;
		longest_edge = std::max(longest_edge, e.length());
		shortest_edge = std::min(shortest_edge, e.length());
	}
	std::cout << total_boundary_edges << " edges are boundary edges\n";
	std::cout << "shortest/longest edges are " 
			  << shortest_edge << "/"
			  << longest_edge << " = "
			  << shortest_edge/longest_edge
			  << std::endl;

	double minx = 1e100;
	double maxx = -1e100;
	double miny = 1e100;
	double maxy = -1e100;
	double minz = 1e100;
	double maxz = -1e100;
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_vertices.size(); ++i)
	{
		Vertex& v = m_vertices[i];
		minx = std::min(minx, v.x());
		maxx = std::max(maxx, v.x());
		miny = std::min(miny, v.y());
		maxy = std::max(maxy, v.y());
		minz = std::min(minz, v.z());
		maxz = std::max(maxz, v.z());
	}
	std::cout << "enclosing XYZ box:"
			  <<" X[" << minx << "," << maxx << "]"
			  <<" Y[" << miny << "," << maxy << "]"
			  <<" Z[" << minz << "," << maxz << "]"
			  << std::endl;

	double dx = maxx - minx;
	double dy = maxy - miny;
	double dz = maxz - minz;
	std::cout << "approximate diameter of the mesh is "
			  << sqrt(dx*dx + dy*dy + dz*dz)
			  << std::endl;

	double min_angle = 1e100;
	double max_angle = -1e100;
	for(unsigned i = 0; i < m_faces.size(); ++i)
	{
		Face& f = m_faces[i];
		for(unsigned j = 0; j < 3; ++j)
		{
			double angle = f.corner_angles()[j];
			min_angle = std::min(min_angle, angle);
			max_angle = std::max(max_angle, angle);
		}
	}
	std::cout << "min/max face angles are "
			  << min_angle/M_PI*180.0 << "/"
			  << max_angle/M_PI*180.0
			  << " degrees\n";

	std::cout << std::endl;
	return true;
}

} //geodesic

#endif	
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