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# World Mortality Dataset

This repository contains country-level data on all-cause mortality in 2015–2021 collected from various sources, see below.   
We are currently providing data for 103 countries and territories.   
We welcome any contributions.

![World Mortality coverage](coverage_map_title_fixed.png)

**Preprint:** Karlinsky & Kobak 2021, The World Mortality Dataset: Tracking excess mortality across countries during the COVID-19 pandemic,

For the excess mortality analysis using this data see

For our sister-project of sub-national mortality data, see


* Our aim is to provide data from 2015 onward. In some cases the coverage starts later, but we require at least full 2019 data.
* Countries are only included if the data exist until at least June 2020. 
* We only collect weekly, monthly, or quarterly data. 
* The latest data points (weeks/months/quarters) for each country are **preliminary** and subject to (sometimes large) revisions.   
* We only provide all-cause mortality numbers, without splitting by age or gender.
* We only provide country-level data, without splitting it by regions or individual cities.
* The Short Term Mortality Fluctuations (STMF) dataset from the [Human Mortality Database]( (HMD) is integrated into this dataset. See the STMF dataset for mortality by age and gender; here we only provide the total numbers.
* The data for the European countries that are not in STMF are sourced from the [EuroStat](
* Some countries publish obviously incomplete weekly data for most recent weeks, which shows as large "dips" in the end of the time series. We omit these data points.  
* Weekly data mostly follow ISO8601 standard, when weeks are calendar weeks, Monday to Sunday, and the weeks on the year boundaries are assigned to the year in which they have more days (four or more). Most years have 52 weeks but some years, such as 2015 and 2020, have 53 weeks. Some countries follow other conventions, see e.g. [STMF description](

![World Mortality across time](world_mort_plot_all.png)

## Sources

### Human Mortality Database, Short-Term Mortality Flucations
We collect the weekly STMF data for the following countries: Australia\*, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland , Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, South Korea, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom (England & Wales + Northern Ireland + Scotland), United States.

We do not use Taiwan data from STMF because the monthly data (see below) is more frequently updated. 

United States data from 2017 onward are replaced with CDC 'predictions' that account for underreporting in recent weeks (see below).

For some European countries, STMF sometimes has more up-to-date (and backward revised) data than EuroStat, as it culls data from countries' NSOs. 
We harmonize the data between these two sources by defaulting to STMF wherever possible, and appending additional from Eurostat if available. 

\* Australia's data (all years) is "Doctor Certified Deaths" rather than "All Registered Deaths". These constitute about 85%-90% of all deaths in Australia. 

### Eurostat
We collect the weekly data from Eurostat for the following countries: Cyprus, Malta, Montenegro, Romania:

Additionally, we collect weekly data from EuroStat for the five French Overseas Departments:
French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, Réunion:

### Albania (monthly)
2016 to 2018: UNData:;countryCode:8&c=2,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2015, 2019 onward: Email correspondence with [Albania Institute of Statistics](

### Andorra (monthly)
2015 to 2020: Email correspondence with [Andorra Department of Statistics]( 

See publication on Natural Movement: 

### Argentina
2015 to 2020: [Rearte et al. (2021) - All-cause excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic. Argentina, 2020](     
2020 and median 2015-2019 values were obtained were digitized using [WebPlotDigitizer](

### Armenia (monthly)

[Statistical Committee of the Republic of Armenia](  


### Aruba (monthly)
Aruba Central Bureau Of Statistics Quarterly Demographic Bulletin 2020:

### Azerbaijan (monthly)
2015: UNData MBS (as crude death rates):  
2016 to 2017:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1  

2015 crude death rates were transformed to mortality counts by using the UNDATA Mid-Year Population estimate for Azerbaijan 2015 which is 9,649,000.

2021 Press release provides total deaths in January-February 2021. To keep the data as monthly, we divided it equally between them. 

### Belarus (monthly)
2015 to 2020: UNData -,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

### Bolivia (monthly)
2015 onward: Information obtained from The Bolivian Civil Registry - [Servicio de Registro Cívico (SERECI)](

We would like to thank G. J. Andrés Uzín P. & Luis Salas for providing us this information.

### Bosnia (monthly)
2015 to 2016: Email correspondence with [Agency for Statistics of Bosnia & Herzegovina (BHAS)](

2017 onward: BHAS Natural Population Change Quarterly:

### Brazil (monthly)
2015 to 2019: Brazil Ministry of Health Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM):  

2020 up to October: SIM 2020:  

2020 November up to 2021: Brazilian Civil Registry (RC):  
In Brazil, the RC is the most up to date source of all-cause mortality. However, it is downward biased compared to the official final figures from SIM due to delayed registration.   
In order to account for this, the monthly counts from the CR are corrected using the ratio between total deaths (up to October) in SIM 2020 (1,310,014) to total deaths in RC 2020 (1,213,027). 

Monthly deaths in Brazil that have been corrected for delayed registration were rounded to one significant digit to emphasize they were adjusted. 

We thank [Marcelo Oliveira]( and [Otavio Ranzani]( for their help on this. 

### Canada (weekly)
StatCan -

Weekly mortality counts were transformed to ISO-8601 weeks by using reference date. 

StatCan has more up to date data than present in World Mortality, yet it is incomplete due to lack of reporting from Ontario (largest province). See: 

### Colombia (weekly)  
Direct link to the latest table in Excel (May 2021):
Here we sum values in three categories: Natural, Violenta (Violent), and En estudio (unclassified deaths). 

### Costa Rica (monthly)
2015 to 2019: UNData -,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1  

2020: Costa Rica Instituto Nacional De Estadística Y Censos (INEC) Defunciones 2020, el impacto de la enfermedad COVID-19 - DATOS PRELIMINARES:

### Cuba (monthly)
2015 - 2019: Oficina Nacional de Estadistica e Informacion (ONEI) [Anuario Demográfico 2017 - 2019](

2020: [Cruz Castanheira, Monteiro da Silva, Del Popolo & Bay (2021)](, Table 3

### Ecuador (weekly)
2015 to 2016:   
2020 onward:  
Direct link to the latest table in XLS:

Ecuador provides daily death counts. We summed them up to form weekly death counts.

We thank [Andrés N. Robalino]( for providing us with 2015-2016 data. 

### Egypt (monthly)
2015 to 2019:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1  
2020: Monthly Bulletin of the Egyptian NSO (CAPMAS): & Egypt in Figures 2021 - Vital:

### El Salvador (monthly)
2015 to 2020: Public Information Request by [LAB-DAT]( from [RNPN](

### French Polynesia (monthly)
2017 to 2020:   
Crude death rates were transformed to mortality counts by using the respective UNDATA Mid-Year Population estimates. 

### Georgia (monthly)
2015-2020: Georgia National Office of Statistics (GEOSTAT):  

Access by: Number of Deaths Per Month -> Download XLS file.

### Gibraltar (monthly)
2015 onward: Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) public request from Government of Gibraltar Press Office

### Greenland (monthly)
2015-2020: Statistics Greenland StatBank Deaths (monthly):

### Guatemala (weekly)
2015 to 2019: Guatemala Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) Estadísticas Vitales
Access by: Base de datos, select appropriate year under Año and then select Defunciones.

2020: Public Information Request from [Registro Nacional De Las Personas (RENAP)]( 

RENAP information was obtained as daily deaths from January 1st 2020 to December 31st 2020, and aggregated to ISO year and week.

### Hong Kong (monthly)
Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department:  
2015 to 2018:    
2019 onward: Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics,

On June 2nd, 2021 - We obtained monthly number of deaths in Hong Kong by month of occurrence rather than month of registration, via an email correspondence with [Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department]( 

### Iran (quarterly)
Iran National Organization for Civil Registration:

The data are provided in Solar Hirji seasons (Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter). Winter starts on Dec 22, so we count it as the next calendar year (e.g. Winter 1393 as the first entry for 2015).

### Ireland (monthly)
2015 - 2019: Ireland Central Statistics Office (CSO) - Measuring Mortality Using Public Data Sources 2019-2021:

2020 onward: CSO PxStat Daily Deaths:

2015 to 2018 are official monthly data from CSO, 2019 onward is from the above CSO study which crawls and corrects []( for up-to-date death notices. Note that These figures are preliminary and might change.

### Israel (weekly)
Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics:

### Jamaica (monthly)
2015: Jamaica Registrar General's 2015 Vital Statistics:  
2016 to 2020: Email correspondence with [Jamaica Registrar General](

### Japan (monthly)
Japanese Government Statistics Portal:

### Kazakhstan (monthly)
Kazakhstan Bureau of National Statistics 
2015 to 2018: Monthly Socio-Economic Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan:  

2019 onward:

Direct link to Excel file:

Thanks to Noah Katz for culling Kazakhstan's data 2015 to 2018.

Thanks to [Mikhail Zelenskiy]( for filling the gaps in 2016 and 2017.

### Kosovo (monthly)
2015 onward: Kosovo Agency of Statistics Quarterly Bulletin:

### Kyrgyzstan (monthly)
2015 - 2018: UNData:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1  
2019 onward: National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic - The main results of natural population January - December 2020: 

### Lebanon (monthly)
2015 - 2019: [Lebanon Ministry of Public Health Vital Statstics Bulletin Bulletin](

2017 - 2021: [Lebanon Ministry of Public Health Hospital-based Cause Of Death Notification System](

2020 - 2021 weekly hospital-deaths data was digitized using [WebPlotDigitizer]( and then turned to monthly. 
Monthly hospital deaths have been corrected to total deaths using the ratio between total deaths to hospital deaths in 2019 (1.34). 

### Liechtenstein (monthly)
Liechtenstein Office for Statistics:  

### Macao (monthly)
2015 - 2019: UNData:;countryCode:446&c=2,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2020 onward: Macao Special Administrative Region Statistics and Census Service Monthly Bulletin:

### Malaysia (monthly)
Department of Statistics Malaysia:

2015 to 2019: eStatistik:

Access by selecting: Main Category - Social, Sub-Category - Demography. Publication title is "Vital Statistics Malaysia".

2020 onward: Demographic Statistics Quarterly 2020:

### Mauritius (monthly)
2015 to 2019: UNData:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1  

2020: Email correspondence with [Statistics Mauritius](

### Mexico (weekly)
National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI) Mexico:
2015 - 2019:

Mexican Ministry of Health Excess deaths database: 
2020 onward: and

We wish to thank [Mario Romero Zavala]( & [Laurianne Despeghel]( for helping us obtain this information. 

### Moldova (monthly)
2015 to 2019: UNData:;countryCode:498&c=2,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2020: Moldova National Bureau of Statistics Quarterly Statistical Bulletin:

### Monaco (monthly)
2015 to 2019: Email correspondence with [Monegasque Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (IMSEE)](

2020 onward: digitized using [WebPlotDigitizer]( 

### Mongolia (monthly)
2015: UNData:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2016 onward: Mongolian Statistical Information Service:

### North Macedonia (monthly)
2015 to 2019: UNData:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2020 onward: North Macedonia State Statistical Office Monthly Bulletin:

### Nicaragua (monthly)
2015 to 2019: Nicaragua Instituto Nacional de Información de Desarrollo (INIDE) Compendio de Estadísticas Vitales:

2020 January to June:

2020 July to August:

To obtain mortality counts for July and August, we used the MAPASALUD January-August count, and subtracted the January-June counts from the LALUPA source, assuming a uniform distrbution between July and August.

### Oman (monthly)
Oman National Center for Statistics and Information
2015 to 2018: Deaths and Births Statistical Bulletin:

2019 onward: Monthly Bulletin:

Note: 2019 monthly death counts was smaller at 1020 deaths than total yearly mortality count (Shown in the January 2021 Monthly Bulletin). 
In order to account for this, all 2019 monthly data was increased by the mean monthly difference of 85. Final official monthly data for 2019 should be available by November 2021. 

### Panama (monthly)
2015 to 2018: UNData:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1  

2019 onward: Email correspondence with [Registro Civil - Tribunal Electoral](

Only 69 deaths were recorded in April 2020, this is probably due to disruption in the registry offices.

### Paraguay (monthly)
2015 onward: Paraguay Ministry of Health Sub-Sistema Informático de Estadísticas Vitales (SSIEV):

### Peru (weekly)
2017 onward: Peruvian Ministry of Health - National Deaths Registration System (SINADEF):

Peru provides daily death counts. We summed them up to form weekly death counts.

### Philippines (monthly)
Philippines Statistics Authority:

### Qatar (monthly)
2015 to 2019: UNData:;countryCode:634&c=2,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2020 onward: Qatar Planning and Statistics Authority Monthly Statistics:

### Russia (monthly) (data available from 2006)  
The latest month is published on ** first and it takes several days for the data to appear on **. The exact URL is always different. For November 2020, the URL is

### San Marino (monthly)
2015 to 2020: San Marino Office of Economic Planning, Data Processing and Statistics - Bulletin of Statistics:

2021: Natural movement of the resident population (monthly):

### Serbia (monthly)
2015 to 2020: [Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia Table Generator](

2021 onward: [Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia Births and Deahts](

### Seychelles (monthly)
2015 onward: Email correspondence with [Seychelles National Bureau of Statistics](

### Singapore (monthly)
Department of Statistics Singapore:

### South Africa (weekly)
South Africa Medical Research Council (SAMRC):

South African data is provided in an Epidemiological Week format, which run from Sunday to Saturday. 

SAMRC does not publish weekly data for years before 2020. Instead, the 2018--2019 data were used by SAMRC to forecast expected weekly mortality using the Excel `Holt-Winters` time series forecasting method in Excel function. We denote this forecast as `year = 0` in the data.

For additional details, refer to SAMRC (2021): METHODOLOGICAL NOTE: PREDICTED NUMBERS OF DEATHS BY EPI-WEEK FOR SOUTH AFRICA IN 2020 AND 2021, available at:  

### Sweden (weekly)
Statistics Sweden - Preliminary Statistics on Deaths (2015 onward, daily):

Note: Sweden has a significant number of deaths which occurred in an "unknown" date (and thus week) in all years. However, 95% these have a [known month of death]( In order to account for this, we have adjusted the daily number of deaths in Sweden by the difference between monthly deaths from daily deaths and total monthly deaths, and the residual with unknown month, distributed throughout the year. 
For example, the sum of daily deaths in April 2020 is 10376. The total monthly deaths in April 2020 is 10555, which yields a daily mean difference of 5.97 added to each day in April 2020. The 254 additional deaths in 2020 with unknown month, were distributed uniformly across months and then daily within each month. Thus, each day in April 2020 is increased by 6.67 deaths.

Weekly deaths in Sweden have been rounded to one significant digit to emphasize they were adjusted. 

### Taiwan (monthly)
Taiwan Ministry of the Interior Monthly Bulletin of Interior Statistics:

Taiwan also has weekly data from STMF, but it is less updated, so we opted to keep the monthly data for now.

### Tajikistan (quarterly)
Tajikistan Agency on Statistics: 
2015 to 2019: Demographic Yearbook of the Republic of Tajikistan 2021 (paper copy):

Monthly counts were aggregated to quarterly counts. 

2020 Q1 to Q3: UNData MBS (as crude death rates):
Crude death rates were transformed to mortality counts by using the UNDATA Mid-Year Population estimate for Tajikistan 2020 which is 9,392,000. 

2020Q4 was derived as the difference between total yearly deaths in 2020 (41743) and sum of 2020Q1-2020Q3. 

We wish to thank the reporters from [Eurasianet]( for providing us this information.

### Transnistria (monthly)
Transnistria State Statistics Service Statistical information bulletin:  

Social and economic development of the PMR:  

### Tunisia (weekly)
Tunisia National Institute of statistics Recent dynamics of mortality in Tunisia:

The data from the report's figure 1 was digitized using [WebPlotDigitizer]( 

### Uruguay (monthly)
2015 - 2019: [Uruguay Ministry of Public Health - Vital Statistics Generator](      
2020: [Cruz Castanheira, Monteiro da Silva, Del Popolo & Bay (2021)](, Table 3.

### Thailand (monthly)
2015 onward: Official Statistics Registration Systems:

### Ukraine (monthly)
2015 to 2018:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2020 onward: State Statistics Office of Ukraine:  
Access by: Statistical Information -> Population and migration -> Number of live births, deaths, by region

2019 data can be found following links from:

### Uzbekistan (monthly)
2015 to 2018: UNData:,3,6,8,10,12,13,14&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1

2019 to 2020: Uzbekistan State Committee on Statistics - Demographic situation January - December (Direct link to PDF):


### United States (weekly)
2015--2016: STMF, see above.  
From 2017: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:  
We use the 'predicted' (weighted) time series that accounts for underreporting in recent weeks. See for more information.  
We remove the last weeks (usually two) that are marked at as being <90% complete.


## Currently unused sources

Below are listed some sources that are currently *not* used for this dataset.

### Ireland (quarterly)
Ireland Central Statistics Office:

### Romania (monthly)

The monthly numbers for Romania are not used because we prefer the weekly numbers from EuroStat.

National Institute of Statistics:

### Uruguay (weekly)
The weekly figures for Uruguay are not used because the monthly numbers are much more up to date and have full historical data.

[Uruguay Ministry of Public Health - Surveillance of all-cause mortality](   
The report presents weekly deaths in 2020 and a forecast of expected deaths based on the median of weekly deaths in 2015-2019 up to week 30. 
The data from the report's figure 3 was digitized using [WebPlotDigitizer]( 

this forecast is denoted as `year = 0` in the data.

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