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usermanual
Berkeley Logo User Manual

 *	Copyright (C) 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
 *
 *      This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
 *      it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 *      the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
 *      (at your option) any later version.
 *
 *      This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 *      but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 *      MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 *      GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 *      You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 *      along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

This is a program that is still being written.  Many things are missing,
including adequate documentation.  This manual assumes that you already know
how to program in Logo, and merely presents the details of this new
implementation.  Read _Computer_Science_Logo_Style,_Volume_1:_
_Symbolic_Computing_ by Brian Harvey (MIT Press, 1997) for a tutorial
on Logo programming with emphasis on symbolic computation.

Here are the special features of this dialect of Logo:

	Source file compatible among Unix, DOS, Windows, and Mac platforms.

	Random-access arrays.

	Variable number of inputs to user-defined procedures.

	Mutators for list structure (dangerous).

	Pause on error, and other improvements to error handling.

	Comments and continuation lines; formatting is preserved when
	procedure definitions are saved or edited.

	Terrapin-style tokenization (e.g., [2+3] is a list with one member)
	but LCSI-style syntax (no special forms except TO).  The best of
	both worlds.

	First-class instruction and expression templates (see APPLY).

	Macros.

Features *not* found in Berkeley Logo include robotics, music, GUIs, animation,
parallelism, and multimedia.  For those, buy a commercial version.


GETTER/SETTER VARIBLE SYNTAX
============================

Logo distinguishes PROCEDURES from VARIABLES.  A procedure is a set of
instructions to carry out some computation; a variable is a named
container that holds a data value such as a number, word, list, or array.

In traditional Logo syntax, a non-numeric word typed without punctuation
represents a request to invoke the procedure named by that word.  A word
typed with a preceding quotation mark represents the word itself.  For
example, in the instruction
	PRINT FIRST "WORD
the procedures named FIRST and PRINT are invoked, but the procedure
named WORD is not invoked; the word W-O-R-D is the input to FIRST.

What about variables?  There are two things one can do with a variable:
give it a value, and find out its value.  To give a variable a value,
Logo provides the primitive procedure MAKE, which requires two inputs:
the name of the variable and the new value to be assigned.  The first
input, the name of the variable, is just a word, and if (as is almost
always the case) the programmer wants to assign a value to a specific
variable whose name is known in advance, that input is quoted, just
as any known specific word would be:
	MAKE "MY.VAR FIRST "WORD
gives the variable named MY.VAR the value W (the first letter of WORD).

To find the value of a variable, Logo provides the primitive procedure
THING, which takes a variable name as its input, and outputs the value
of the accessible variable with that name.  Thus
	PRINT THING "MY.VAR
will print W (supposing the MAKE above has been done).  Since finding
the value of a specific, known variable name is such a common operation,
Logo also provides an abbreviated notation that combines THING with quote:
	PRINT :MY.VAR
The colon (which Logo old-timers pronounce "dots") replaces THING and "
in the earlier version of the instruction.

Newcomers to Logo often complain about the need for all this punctuation.
In particular, Logo programmers who learned about dots and quotes without
also learning about THING wonder why an instruction such as
	MAKE "NEW.VAR :OLD.VAR
uses two different punctuation marks to identify the two variables.
(Having read the paragraphs above, you will understand that actually
both variable names are quoted, but the procedure THING is invoked to
find the value of OLD.VAR, since it's that value, not OLD.VAR's name,
that MAKE needs to know.  It wouldn't make sense to ask for THING of
NEW.VAR, since we haven't given NEW.VAR a value yet.)

Although Logo's punctuation rules make sense once understood, they
do form a barrier to entry for the Logo beginner.  Why, then, couldn't
Logo be designed so that an unpunctuated word would represent a
procedure if there is a procedure by that name, or a variable if
there is a variable by that name?  Then we could say
	PRINT MY.VAR
and Logo would realize that MY.VAR is the name of a variable, not
of a procedure.  The traditional reason not to use this convention
is that Logo allows the same word to name a procedure and a variable
at the same time.  This is most often important for words that name
data types, as in the following procedure:
	TO PLURAL :WORD
	OUTPUT WORD :WORD "S
	END
Here the name WORD is a natural choice for the input to PLURAL, since
it describes the kind of input that PLURAL expects.  Within the procedure,
we use WORD to represent Logo's primitive procedure that combines two
input words to form a new, longer word; we use :WORD to represent the
variable containing the input, whatever actual word is given when
PLURAL is invoked.
	? PRINT PLURAL "COMPUTER
	COMPUTERS

However, if a Logo instruction includes an unquoted word that is *not*
the name of a procedure, Logo could look for a variable of that name
instead.  This would allow a "punctuationless" Logo, ** PROVIDED THAT
USERS WHO WANT TO WORK WITHOUT COLONS FOR VARIABLES CHOOSE VARIABLE
NAMES THAT ARE NOT ALSO PROCEDURE NAMES. **

What about assigning a value to a variable?  Could we do without
the quotation mark on MAKE's first input?  Alas, no.  Although the
first input to MAKE is *usually* a constant, known variable name,
sometimes it isn't, as in this example:
	TO INCREMENT :VAR
	MAKE :VAR (THING :VAR)+1	; Note: it's not "VAR here!
	END

	? MAKE "X 5
	? INCREMENT "X
	? PRINT :X
	6
The procedure INCREMENT takes a variable name as its input and
changes the value of that variable.  In this example there are
two variables; the variable whose name is VAR, and whose value
is the word X; and the variable whose name is X and whose value
changes from 5 to 6.  Suppose we changed the behavior of MAKE so
that it took the word after MAKE as the name of the variable to
change; we would be unable to write INCREMENT:
	TO INCREMENT :VAR	; nonworking!
	MAKE VAR (THING VAR)+1
	END
This would assign a new value to VAR, not to X.

What we can do is to allow an *alternative* to MAKE, a "setter"
procedure for a particular variable.  The notation will be
	? SETFOO 7
	? PRINT FOO
	7
SETFOO is a "setter procedure" that takes one input (in this case
the input 7) and assigns its value to the variable named FOO.

Berkeley Logo allows users to choose either the traditional notation,
in which case the same name can be used both for a procedure and for
a variable, or the getter/setter notation, in which variable FOO is
set with SETFOO and examined with FOO, but the same name can't be
used for procedure and variable.

Here is how this choice is allowed:  Berkeley Logo uses traditional notation,
with procedures distinct from variables.  However, if there is a variable
named AllowGetSet whose value is TRUE (which there is, by default, when
Logo starts up), then if a Logo instruction refers to a *nonexistent*
procedure (so that the error message "I don't know how to ..." would result),
Logo tries the following two steps:

	1.  If the name is at least four characters long, and the first three
	characters are the letters SET (upper or lower case), and if the name
	is followed in the instruction by another value, and if the name
	without the SET is the name of a variable that already exists, then
	Logo will invoke MAKE with its first input being the name without the
	SET, and its second input being the following value.

	2.  If step 1's conditions are not met, but the name is the name of an
	accessible variable, then Logo will invoke THING with that name as
	input, to find the variable's value.

Step 1 requires that the variable already exist so that misspellings of names
of SETxxx primitives (e.g., SETHEADING) will still be caught, instead of
silently creating a new variable.  The command GLOBAL can be used to create
a variable without giving it a value.

One final point:  The TO command in Logo has always been a special
case; the rest of the line starting with TO is not evaluated as
ordinary Logo expressions are.  In particular, the colons used to
mark the names of inputs to the procedure do not cause THING to be
invoked.  They are merely mnemonic aids, reminding the Logo user
that these words are names of variables.  (Arguably, this nonstantard
behavior of TO adds to Logo beginners' confusion about colons.)
To a programmer using colonless variable references, the colons in
the TO line are unnecessary and meaningless.  Berkeley Logo therefore
makes the colons optional:
	TO FOO :IN1 :IN2
and
	TO FOO IN1 IN2
are both allowed.


ENTERING AND LEAVING LOGO
=========================

The process to start Logo depends on your operating system:

Unix:	 Type the word {\tt logo} to the shell.  (The directory in which
	 you've installed Logo must be in your path.)

DOS:	 Change directories to the one containing Logo (probably
	 C:\UCBLOGO).  Then type UCBLOGO for the large memory
	 version, or BL for the 640K version.

Mac:	 Double-click on the LOGO icon within the "UCB Logo" folder.

Windows: Double-click on the UCBWLOGO icon in the UCBLOGO folder.

To leave Logo, enter the command "bye".

On startup, Logo looks for a file named "startup.lg" in the system Logo
library and, if found, loads it.  Then it looks for "startup.lg" in the
user's home directory, or the current directory, depending on the operating
system, and loads that.  These startup files can be used to predefine
procedures, e.g., to provide non-English names for primitive procedures.

Under Unix, DOS, or Windows, if you include one or more filenames on the
command line when starting Logo, those files will be loaded before the
interpreter starts reading commands from your terminal.  If you load a file
that executes some program that includes a "bye" command, Logo will run that
program and exit.  You can therefore write standalone programs in Logo and run
them with shell/batch scripts.  To support this technique, Logo does not print
its usual welcoming and parting messages if you give file arguments to the
logo command.

If a command line argument is just a hyphen, then all command line arguments
after the hyphen are not taken as filenames, but are instead collected in a
list, one word per argument; the buried variable COMMAND.LINE contains that
list of arguments, or the empty list if there are none.  On my Linux system,
if the first line of an executable shell script is
#!/usr/local/bin/logo -
(note the hyphen) then the script can be given command line arguments and
they all end up in :COMMAND.LINE along with the script's path.  Experiment.

If you type your interrupt character (see table below) Logo will stop what
it's doing and return to toplevel, as if you did THROW "TOPLEVEL.  If you
type your quit character Logo will pause as if you did PAUSE.

               wxWidgets       Unix        DOS/Windows          Mac

toplevel         alt-S    usually ctrl-C     ctrl-Q      command-. (period)

pause            alt-P    usually ctrl-\     ctrl-W      command-, (comma)

If you have an environment variable called LOGOLIB whose value is the name of
a directory, then Logo will use that directory instead of the default
library.  If you invoke a procedure that has not been defined, Logo first
looks for a file in the current directory named proc.lg where "proc" is the
procedure name in lower case letters.  If such a file exists, Logo loads
that file.  If the missing procedure is still undefined, or if there is no
such file, Logo then looks in the library directory for a file named proc
(no ".lg") and, if it exists, loads it.  If neither file contains a
definition for the procedure, then Logo signals an error.  Several
procedures that are primitive in most versions of Logo are included in the
default library, so if you use a different library you may want to include
some or all of the default library in it.


TOKENIZATION
============

Names of procedures, variables, and property lists are case-insensitive.  So
are the special words END, TRUE, and FALSE.  Case of letters is preserved
in everything you type, however.

Within square brackets, words are delimited only by spaces and square
brackets.  [2+3] is a list containing one word.  Note, however, that the
Logo primitives that interpret such a list as a Logo instruction or
expression (RUN, IF, etc.) reparse the list as if it had not been typed
inside brackets.

After a quotation mark outside square brackets, a word is delimited by
a space, a square bracket, or a parenthesis.

A word not after a quotation mark or inside square brackets is delimited
by a space, a bracket, a parenthesis, or an infix operator +-*/=<>.  Note
that words following colons are in this category.  Note that quote and
colon are not delimiters.  Each infix operator character is a word in
itself, except that the two-character sequences <= >= and <> (the latter
meaning not-equal) with no intervening space are recognized as a single
word.

A word consisting of a question mark followed by a number (e.g., ?37),
when runparsed (i.e., where a procedure name is expected), is treated
as if it were the sequence

	( ? 37 )

making the number an input to the ? procedure.  (See the discussion of
templates, below.)  This special treatment does not apply to words read
as data, to words with a non-number following the question mark, or if
the question mark is backslashed.

A line (an instruction line or one read by READLIST or READWORD) can be
continued onto the following line if its last character is a tilde (~).
READWORD preserves the tilde and the newline; READLIST does not.

Lines read with READRAWLINE are never continued.

An instruction line or a line read by READLIST (but not by READWORD)
is automatically continued to the next line, as if ended with a tilde,
if there are unmatched brackets, parentheses, braces, or vertical bars
pending.  However, it's an error if the continuation line contains
only the word END; this is to prevent runaway procedure definitions.
Lines eplicitly continued with a tilde avoid this restriction.

If a line being typed interactively on the keyboard is continued, either
with a tilde or automatically, Logo will display a tilde as a prompt
character for the continuation line.

A semicolon begins a comment in an instruction line.  Logo ignores
characters from the semicolon to the end of the line.  A tilde as the
last character still indicates a continuation line, but not a continuation
of the comment.  For example, typing the instruction

	print "abc;comment ~
	def

will print the word abcdef.  Semicolon has no special meaning in data
lines read by READWORD or READLIST, but such a line can later be reparsed
using RUNPARSE and then comments will be recognized.

The two-character sequence #! at the beginning of a line also starts a
comment.  Unix users can therefore write a file containing Logo commands,
starting with the line

	#! /usr/local/bin/logo

(or wherever your Logo executable lives) and the file will be executable
directly from the shell.

To include an otherwise delimiting character (including semicolon or tilde)
in a word, precede it with backslash (\).  If the last character of a line
is a backslash, then the newline character following the backslash will be
part of the last word on the line, and the line continues onto the following
line.  To include a backslash in a word, use \\.  If the combination
backslash-newline is entered at the terminal, Logo will issue a backslash as
a prompt character for the continuation line.  All of this applies to data
lines read with READWORD or READLIST as well as to instruction lines.

A line read with READRAWLINE has no special quoting mechanism; both
backslash and vertical bar (described below) are just ordinary characters.

An alternative notation to include otherwise delimiting characters in words is
to enclose a group of characters in vertical bars.  All characters between
vertical bars are treated as if they were letters.  In data read with READWORD
the vertical bars are preserved in the resulting word.  In data read with
READLIST (or resulting from a PARSE or RUNPARSE of a word) the vertical bars
do not appear explicitly; all potentially delimiting characters (including
spaces, brackets, parentheses, and infix operators) appear unmarked, but
tokenized as though they were letters.  Within vertical bars, backslash may
still be used; the only characters that must be backslashed in this context
are backslash and vertical bar themselves.

Characters entered between vertical bars are forever special, even if the
word or list containing them is later reparsed with PARSE or RUNPARSE.
Characters typed after a backslash are treated somewhat differently:  When a
quoted word containing a backslashed character is runparsed, the backslashed
character loses its special quality and acts thereafter as if typed normally.
This distinction is important only if you are building a Logo expression out
of parts, to be RUN later, and want to use parentheses.  For example,

	PRINT RUN (SE "\( 2 "+ 3 "\))

will print 5, but

	RUN (SE "MAKE ""|(| 2)

will create a variable whose name is open-parenthesis.  (Each example would
fail if vertical bars and backslashes were interchanged.)

A character entered with backslash is EQUALP to the same character without the
backslash, but can be distinguished by the VBARREDP predicate.  (However,
VBARREDP returns TRUE only for characters for which special treatment is
necessary: whitespace, parentheses, brackets, infix operators, backslash,
vertical bar, tilde, quote, question mark, colon, and semicolon.)


DATA STRUCTURE PRIMITIVES
=========================

CONSTRUCTORS
------------

WORD word1 word2
(WORD word1 word2 word3 ...)

	outputs a word formed by concatenating its inputs.

LIST thing1 thing2
(LIST thing1 thing2 thing3 ...)

	outputs a list whose members are its inputs, which can be any
	Logo datum (word, list, or array).

SENTENCE thing1 thing2
SE thing1 thing2
(SENTENCE thing1 thing2 thing3 ...)
(SE thing1 thing2 thing3 ...)

	outputs a list whose members are its inputs, if those inputs are
	not lists, or the members of its inputs, if those inputs are lists.

FPUT thing list

	outputs a list equal to its second input with one extra member,
	the first input, at the beginning.  If the second input is a word,
	then the first input must be a one-letter word, and FPUT is
	equivalent to WORD.

LPUT thing list

	outputs a list equal to its second input with one extra member,
	the first input, at the end.  If the second input is a word,
	then the first input must be a one-letter word, and LPUT is
	equivalent to WORD with its inputs in the other order.

ARRAY size
(ARRAY size origin)

	outputs an array of "size" members (must be a positive integer),
	each of which initially is an empty list.  Array members can be
	selected with ITEM and changed with SETITEM.  The first member of
	the array is member number 1 unless an "origin" input (must be an
	integer) is given, in which case the first member of the array has
	that number as its index.  (Typically 0 is used as the origin if
	anything.)  Arrays are printed by PRINT and friends, and can be
	typed in, inside curly braces; indicate an origin with {a b c}@0.

MDARRAY sizelist					(library procedure)
(MDARRAY sizelist origin)

	outputs a multi-dimensional array.  The first input must be a list
	of one or more positive integers.  The second input, if present,
	must be a single integer that applies to every dimension of the array.
	Ex: (MDARRAY [3 5] 0) outputs a two-dimensional array whose members
	range from [0 0] to [2 4].

LISTTOARRAY list
(LISTTOARRAY list origin)

	outputs an array of the same size as the input list, whose members
	are the members of the input list.

ARRAYTOLIST array

	outputs a list whose members are the members of the input array.
	The first member of the output is the first member of the array,
	regardless of the array's origin.

COMBINE thing1 thing2					(library procedure)

	if thing2 is a word, outputs WORD thing1 thing2.  If thing2 is a list,
	outputs FPUT thing1 thing2.

REVERSE list						(library procedure)

	outputs a list whose members are the members of the input list, in
	reverse order.

GENSYM							(library procedure)

	outputs a unique word each time it's invoked.  The words are of the
	form G1, G2, etc.


SELECTORS
---------

FIRST thing

	if the input is a word, outputs the first character of the word.
	If the input is a list, outputs the first member of the list.
	If the input is an array, outputs the origin of the array (that
	is, the INDEX OF the first member of the array).

FIRSTS list

	outputs a list containing the FIRST of each member of the input
	list.  It is an error if any member of the input list is empty.
	(The input itself may be empty, in which case the output is also
	empty.)  This could be written as

		to firsts :list
		output map "first :list
		end

	but is provided as a primitive in order to speed up the iteration
	tools MAP, MAP.SE, and FOREACH.
 
		to transpose :matrix
		if emptyp first :matrix [op []]
		op fput firsts :matrix transpose bfs :matrix
		end

LAST wordorlist

	if the input is a word, outputs the last character of the word.
	If the input is a list, outputs the last member of the list.

BUTFIRST wordorlist
BF wordorlist

	if the input is a word, outputs a word containing all but the first
	character of the input.  If the input is a list, outputs a list
	containing all but the first member of the input.

BUTFIRSTS list
BFS list

	outputs a list containing the BUTFIRST of each member of the input
	list.  It is an error if any member of the input list is empty or an
	array.  (The input itself may be empty, in which case the output is
	also empty.)  This could be written as

		to butfirsts :list
		output map "butfirst :list
		end

	but is provided as a primitive in order to speed up the iteration
	tools MAP, MAP.SE, and FOREACH.

BUTLAST wordorlist
BL wordorlist

	if the input is a word, outputs a word containing all but the last
	character of the input.  If the input is a list, outputs a list
	containing all but the last member of the input.

ITEM index thing

	if the "thing" is a word, outputs the "index"th character of the
	word.  If the "thing" is a list, outputs the "index"th member of
	the list.  If the "thing" is an array, outputs the "index"th
	member of the array.  "Index" starts at 1 for words and lists;
	the starting index of an array is specified when the array is
	created.

MDITEM indexlist array					(library procedure)

	outputs the member of the multidimensional "array" selected by
	the list of numbers "indexlist".

PICK list						(library procedure)

	outputs a randomly chosen member of the input list.

REMOVE thing list					(library procedure)

	outputs a copy of "list" with every member equal to "thing" removed.

REMDUP list						(library procedure)

	outputs a copy of "list" with duplicate members removed.  If two or
	more members of the input are equal, the rightmost of those members
	is the one that remains in the output.

QUOTED thing						(library procedure)

	outputs its input, if a list; outputs its input with a quotation
	mark prepended, if a word.


MUTATORS
--------

SETITEM index array value

	command.  Replaces the "index"th member of "array" with the new
	"value".  Ensures that the resulting array is not circular, i.e.,
	"value" may not be a list or array that contains "array".

MDSETITEM indexlist array value				(library procedure)

	command.  Replaces the member of "array" chosen by "indexlist"
	with the new "value".

.SETFIRST list value

	command.  Changes the first member of "list" to be "value".

	WARNING:  Primitives whose names start with a period are DANGEROUS.
	Their use by non-experts is not recommended.  The use of .SETFIRST can
	lead to circular list structures, which will get some Logo primitives
	into infinite loops, and to unexpected changes to other data
	structures that share storage with the list being modified.

.SETBF list value

	command.  Changes the butfirst of "list" to be "value".

	WARNING: Primitives whose names start with a period are DANGEROUS.
	Their use by non-experts is not recommended.  The use of .SETBF can
	lead to circular list structures, which will get some Logo primitives
	into infinite loops; unexpected changes to other data structures that
	share storage with the list being modified; or to Logo crashes and
	coredumps if the butfirst of a list is not itself a list.

.SETITEM index array value

	command.  Changes the "index"th member of "array" to be "value",
	like SETITEM, but without checking for circularity.

	WARNING: Primitives whose names start with a period are DANGEROUS.
	Their use by non-experts is not recommended.  The use of .SETITEM
	can lead to circular arrays, which will get some Logo primitives into
	infinite loops.

PUSH stackname thing					(library procedure)

	command.  Adds the "thing" to the stack that is the value of the
	variable whose name is "stackname".  This variable must have a list
	as its value; the initial value should be the empty list.  New
	members are added at the front of the list.

POP stackname						(library procedure)

	outputs the most recently PUSHed member of the stack that is the
	value of the variable whose name is "stackname" and removes that
	member from the stack.

QUEUE queuename thing					(library procedure)

	command.  Adds the "thing" to the queue that is the value of the
	variable whose name is "queuename".  This variable must have a list
	as its value; the initial value should be the empty list.  New
	members are added at the back of the list.

DEQUEUE queuename					(library procedure)

	outputs the least recently QUEUEd member of the queue that is the
	value of the variable whose name is "queuename" and removes that
	member from the queue.


PREDICATES
----------

WORDP thing
WORD? thing

	outputs TRUE if the input is a word, FALSE otherwise.

LISTP thing
LIST? thing

	outputs TRUE if the input is a list, FALSE otherwise.

ARRAYP thing
ARRAY? thing

	outputs TRUE if the input is an array, FALSE otherwise.

EMPTYP thing
EMPTY? thing

	outputs TRUE if the input is the empty word or the empty list,
	FALSE otherwise.

EQUALP thing1 thing2
EQUAL? thing1 thing2
thing1 = thing2

	outputs TRUE if the inputs are equal, FALSE otherwise.  Two numbers
	are equal if they have the same numeric value.  Two non-numeric words
	are equal if they contain the same characters in the same order.  If
	there is a variable named CASEIGNOREDP whose value is TRUE, then an
	upper case letter is considered the same as the corresponding lower
	case letter.  (This is the case by default.)  Two lists are equal if
	their members are equal.  An array is only equal to itself; two
	separately created arrays are never equal even if their members are
	equal.  (It is important to be able to know if two expressions have
	the same array as their value because arrays are mutable; if, for
	example, two variables have the same array as their values then
	performing SETITEM on one of them will also change the other.)

NOTEQUALP thing1 thing2
NOTEQUAL? thing1 thing2
thing1 <> thing2

	outputs FALSE if the inputs are equal, TRUE otherwise.  See EQUALP
	for the meaning of equality for different data types.

BEFOREP word1 word2
BEFORE? word1 word2

	outputs TRUE if word1 comes before word2 in ASCII collating sequence
	(for words of letters, in alphabetical order).  Case-sensitivity is
	determined by the value of CASEIGNOREDP.  Note that if the inputs are
	numbers, the result may not be the same as with LESSP; for example,
	BEFOREP 3 12 is false because 3 collates after 1.

.EQ thing1 thing2

	outputs TRUE if its two inputs are the same datum, so that applying a
	mutator to one will change the other as well.  Outputs FALSE otherwise,
	even if the inputs are equal in value.
	WARNING: Primitives whose names start with a period are DANGEROUS.
	Their use by non-experts is not recommended.  The use of mutators
	can lead to circular data structures, infinite loops, or Logo crashes.

MEMBERP thing1 thing2
MEMBER? thing1 thing2

	if "thing2" is a list or an array, outputs TRUE if "thing1" is EQUALP
	to a member of "thing2", FALSE otherwise.  If "thing2" is
	a word, outputs TRUE if "thing1" is a one-character word EQUALP to a
	character of "thing2", FALSE otherwise.

SUBSTRINGP thing1 thing2
SUBSTRING? thing1 thing2

	if "thing1" or "thing2" is a list or an array, outputs FALSE.  If
	"thing2" is a word, outputs TRUE if "thing1" is EQUALP to a
	substring of "thing2", FALSE otherwise.

NUMBERP thing
NUMBER? thing

	outputs TRUE if the input is a number, FALSE otherwise.

VBARREDP char
VBARRED? char
BACKSLASHEDP char                               (library procedure)
BACKSLASHED? char                               (library procedure)

	outputs TRUE if the input character was originally entered into Logo
	within vertical bars (|) to prevent its usual special syntactic
	meaning, FALSE otherwise.  (Outputs TRUE only if the character is a
	backslashed space, tab, newline, or one of ()[]+-*/=<>":;\~?| )

	The names BACKSLASHEDP and BACKSLASHED? are included in the Logo
	library for backward compatibility with the former names of this
	primitive, although it does *not* output TRUE for characters
	originally entered with backslashes.


QUERIES
-------

COUNT thing

	outputs the number of characters in the input, if the input is a word;
	outputs the number of members in the input, if it is a list
	or an array.  (For an array, this may or may not be the index of the
	last member, depending on the array's origin.)

ASCII char

	outputs the integer (between 0 and 255) that represents the input
	character in the ASCII code.  Interprets control characters as
	representing vbarred punctuation, and returns the character code
	for the corresponding punctuation character without vertical bars.
	(Compare RAWASCII.)

RAWASCII char

	outputs the integer (between 0 and 255) that represents the input
	character in the ASCII code.  Interprets control characters as
	representing themselves.  To find out the ASCII code of an arbitrary
	keystroke, use RAWASCII RC.

CHAR int

	outputs the character represented in the ASCII code by the input,
	which must be an integer between 0 and 255.

MEMBER thing1 thing2

	if "thing2" is a word or list and if MEMBERP with these inputs would
	output TRUE, outputs the portion of "thing2" from the first instance
	of "thing1" to the end.  If MEMBERP would output FALSE, outputs the
	empty word or list according to the type of "thing2".  It is an error
	for "thing2" to be an array.

LOWERCASE word

	outputs a copy of the input word, but with all uppercase letters
	changed to the corresponding lowercase letter.

UPPERCASE word

	outputs a copy of the input word, but with all lowercase letters
	changed to the corresponding uppercase letter.

STANDOUT thing

	outputs a word that, when printed, will appear like the input but
	displayed in standout mode (boldface, reverse video, or whatever your
	version does for standout).  The word contains machine-specific
	magic characters at the beginning and end; in between is the printed
	form (as if displayed using TYPE) of the input.  The output is always
	a word, even if the input is of some other type, but it may include
	spaces and other formatting characters.  Note: a word output by
	STANDOUT while Logo is running on one machine will probably not have
	the desired effect if printed on another type of machine.

	In the Macintosh classic version, the way that standout works is
	incompatible with the use of characters whose ASCII code is greater
	than 127.  Therefore, you have a choice to make:  The instruction
		CANINVERSE 0
	disables standout, but enables the display of ASCII codes above 127,
	and the instruction
		CANINVERSE 1
	restores the default situation in which standout is enabled and the
	extra graphic characters cannot be printed.

PARSE word

	outputs the list that would result if the input word were entered
	in response to a READLIST operation.  That is, PARSE READWORD has
	the same value as READLIST for the same characters read.

RUNPARSE wordorlist

	outputs the list that would result if the input word or list were
	entered as an instruction line; characters such as infix operators
	and parentheses are separate members of the output.  Note that
	sublists of a runparsed list are not themselves runparsed.


COMMUNICATION
=============

TRANSMITTERS
------------

Note:  If there is a variable named PRINTDEPTHLIMIT with a nonnegative
integer value, then complex list and array structures will be printed
only to the allowed depth.  That is, members of members of... of members
will be allowed only so far.  The members omitted because
they are just past the depth limit are indicated by an ellipsis for each
one, so a too-deep list of two members will print as [... ...].

If there is a variable named PRINTWIDTHLIMIT with a nonnegative integer
value, then only the first so many members of any array or
list will be printed.  A single ellipsis replaces all missing data
within the structure.  The width limit also applies to the number of
characters printed in a word, except that a PRINTWIDTHLIMIT between 0 and 9
will be treated as if it were 10 when applied to words.  This limit
applies not only to the top-level printed datum but to any substructures
within it.

If there is a variable named FULLPRINTP whose value is TRUE, then words that
were created using backslash or vertical bar (to include characters that
would otherwise not be treated as part of a word) are printed with the
backslashes or vertical bars shown, so that the printed result could be
re-read by Logo to produce the same value.  If FULLPRINTP is TRUE then
the empty word (however it was created) prints as ||.  (Otherwise it prints
as nothing at all.)

PRINT thing
PR thing
(PRINT thing1 thing2 ...)
(PR thing1 thing2 ...)

	command.  Prints the input or inputs to the current write stream
	(initially the screen).  All the inputs are printed on a single
	line, separated by spaces, ending with a newline.  If an input is a
	list, square brackets are not printed around it, but brackets are
	printed around sublists.  Braces are always printed around arrays.

TYPE thing
(TYPE thing1 thing2 ...)

	command.  Prints the input or inputs like PRINT, except that no
	newline character is printed at the end and multiple inputs are not
	separated by spaces.  Note: printing to the terminal is ordinarily
	"line buffered"; that is, the characters you print using TYPE will
	not actually appear on the screen until either a newline character
	is printed (for example, by PRINT or SHOW) or Logo tries to read
	from the keyboard (either at the request of your program or after an
	instruction prompt).  This buffering makes the program much faster
	than it would be if each character appeared immediately, and in most
	cases the effect is not disconcerting.  To accommodate programs that
	do a lot of positioned text display using TYPE, Logo will force
	printing whenever CURSOR or SETCURSOR is invoked.  This solves most
	buffering problems.  Still, on occasion you may find it necessary to
	force the buffered characters to be printed explicitly; this can be
	done using the WAIT command.  WAIT 0 will force printing without
	actually waiting.

SHOW thing
(SHOW thing1 thing2 ...)

	command.  Prints the input or inputs like PRINT, except that
	if an input is a list it is printed inside square brackets.


RECEIVERS
---------

READLIST
RL

	reads a line from the read stream (initially the keyboard) and
	outputs that line as a list.  The line is separated into members as
	though it were typed in square brackets in an instruction.  If the
	read stream is a file, and the end of file is reached, READLIST
	outputs the empty word (not the empty list).  READLIST processes
	backslash, vertical bar, and tilde characters in the read stream;
	the output list will not contain these characters but they will have
	had their usual effect.  READLIST does not, however, treat semicolon
	as a comment character.

READWORD
RW

	reads a line from the read stream and outputs that line as a word.
	The output is a single word even if the line contains spaces,
	brackets, etc.  If the read stream is a file, and the end of file is
	reached, READWORD outputs the empty list (not the empty word).
	READWORD processes backslash, vertical bar, and tilde characters in
	the read stream.  In the case of a tilde used for line continuation,
	the output word DOES include the tilde and the newline characters, so
	that the user program can tell exactly what the user entered.
	Vertical bars in the line are also preserved in the output.
	Backslash characters are not preserved in the output.

READRAWLINE

	reads a line from the read stream and outputs that line as a word.
	The output is a single word even if the line contains spaces,
	brackets, etc.  If the read stream is a file, and the end of file is
	reached, READRAWLINE outputs the empty list (not the empty word).
	READRAWLINE outputs the exact string of characters as they appear
	in the line, with no special meaning for backslash, vertical bar,
	tilde, or any other formatting characters.

READCHAR
RC

	reads a single character from the read stream and outputs that
	character as a word.  If the read stream is a file, and the end of
	file is reached, READCHAR outputs the empty list (not the empty
	word).  If the read stream is the keyboard, echoing is turned off
	when READCHAR is invoked, and remains off until READLIST or READWORD
	is invoked or a Logo prompt is printed.  Backslash, vertical bar,
	and tilde characters have no special meaning in this context.

READCHARS num
RCS num

	reads "num" characters from the read stream and outputs those
	characters as a word.  If the read stream is a file, and the end of
	file is reached, READCHARS outputs the empty list (not the empty
	word).  If the read stream is a terminal, echoing is turned off
	when READCHARS is invoked, and remains off until READLIST or READWORD
	is invoked or a Logo prompt is printed.  Backslash, vertical bar,
	and tilde characters have no special meaning in this context.

SHELL command
(SHELL command wordflag)

	Under Unix, outputs the result of running "command" as a shell
	command.  (The command is sent to /bin/sh, not csh or other
	alternatives.)  If the command is a literal list in the instruction
	line, and if you want a backslash character sent to the shell, you
	must use \\ to get the backslash through Logo's reader intact.  The
	output is a list containing one member for each line generated by
	the shell command.  Ordinarily each such line is represented by a
	list in the output, as though the line were read using READLIST.  If
	a second input is given, regardless of the value of the input, each
	line is represented by a word in the output as though it were read
	with READWORD.  Example:

			to dayofweek
			output first first shell [date]
			end

	This is "first first" to extract the first word of the first (and
	only) line of the shell output.

	Under MacOS X, SHELL works as under Unix.  SHELL is not available
	under Mac Classic.

	Under DOS, SHELL is a command, not an operation; it sends its
	input to a DOS command processor but does not collect the result
	of the command.

	Under Windows, the wxWidgets version of Logo behaves as under Unix (except
	that DOS-style commands are understood; use "dir" rather than "ls").
	The non-wxWidgets version behaves like the DOS version.


FILE ACCESS
-----------

SETPREFIX string

	command.  Sets a prefix that will be used as the implicit beginning
	of filenames in OPENREAD, OPENWRITE, OPENAPPEND, OPENUPDATE, LOAD,
	and SAVE commands.  Logo will put the appropriate separator
	character (slash for Unix, backslash for DOS/Windows, colon for
	MacOS Classic) between the prefix and the filename entered by the user.
	The input to SETPREFIX must be a word, unless it is the empty list,
	to indicate that there should be no prefix.

PREFIX

	outputs the current file prefix, or [] if there is no prefix.
	See SETPREFIX.

OPENREAD filename

	command.  Opens the named file for reading.  The read position is
	initially at the beginning of the file.

OPENWRITE filename

	command.  Opens the named file for writing.  If the file already
	existed, the old version is deleted and a new, empty file created.

	OPENWRITE, but not the other OPEN variants, will accept as input
	a two-element list, in which the first element must be a variable
	name, and the second must be a positive integer.  A character
	buffer of the specified size will be created.  When a SETWRITE is
	done with this same list (in the sense of .EQ, not a copy, so
	you must do something like
		? make "buf [foo 100]
		? openwrite :buf
		? setwrite :buf
		    [...]
		? close :buf
	and not just
		? openwrite [foo 100]
		? setwrite [foo 100]
	and so on), the printed characters are stored in the buffer;
	when a CLOSE is done with the same list as input, the characters
	from the buffer (treated as one long word, even if spaces and
	newlines are included) become the value of the specified variable.

OPENAPPEND filename

	command.  Opens the named file for writing.  If the file already
	exists, the write position is initially set to the end of the old
	file, so that newly written data will be appended to it.

OPENUPDATE filename

	command.  Opens the named file for reading and writing.  The read and
	write position is initially set to the end of the old file, if any.
	Note: each open file has only one position, for both reading and
	writing.  If a file opened for update is both READER and WRITER at
	the same time, then SETREADPOS will also affect WRITEPOS and vice
	versa.  Also, if you alternate reading and writing the same file,
	you must SETREADPOS between a write and a read, and SETWRITEPOS
	between a read and a write.

CLOSE filename

	command.  Closes the named file.  If the file was currently the
	reader or writer, then the reader or writer is changed to the
	keyboard or screen, as if SETREAD [] or SETWRITE [] had been done.

ALLOPEN

	outputs a list whose members are the names of all files currently open.
	This list does not include the dribble file, if any.

CLOSEALL						(library procedure)

	command.  Closes all open files.  Abbreviates
	FOREACH ALLOPEN [CLOSE ?]

ERASEFILE filename
ERF filename

	command.  Erases (deletes, removes) the named file, which should not
	currently be open.

DRIBBLE filename

	command.  Creates a new file whose name is the input, like OPENWRITE,
	and begins recording in that file everything that is read from the
	keyboard or written to the terminal.  That is, this writing is in
	addition to the writing to WRITER.  The intent is to create a
	transcript of a Logo session, including things like prompt
	characters and interactions.

NODRIBBLE

	command.  Stops copying information into the dribble file, and
	closes the file.

SETREAD filename

	command.  Makes the named file the read stream, used for READLIST,
	etc.  The file must already be open with OPENREAD or OPENUPDATE.  If
	the input is the empty list, then the read stream becomes the
	keyboard, as usual.  Changing the read stream does not close the
	file that was previously the read stream, so it is possible to
	alternate between files.

SETWRITE filename

	command.  Makes the named file the write stream, used for PRINT,
	etc.  The file must already be open with OPENWRITE, OPENAPPEND, or
	OPENUPDATE.  If the input is the empty list, then the write stream
	becomes the screen, as usual.  Changing the write stream does
	not close the file that was previously the write stream, so it is
	possible to alternate between files.

	If the input is a list, then its first element must be a variable
	name, and its second and last element must be a positive integer; a
	buffer of that many characters will be allocated, and will become the
	writestream.  If the same list (same in the .EQ sense, not a copy)
	has been used as input to OPENWRITE, then the already-allocated
	buffer will be used, and the writer can be changed to and from this
	buffer, with all the characters accumulated as in a file.  When the
	same list is used as input to CLOSE, the contents of the buffer
	(as an unparsed word, which may contain newline characters) will
	become the value of the named variable.  For compatibility with
	earlier versions, if the list has not been opened when the SETWRITE
	is done, it will be opened implicitly, but the first SETWRITE after
	this one will implicitly close it, setting the variable and freeing
	the allocated buffer.

READER

	outputs the name of the current read stream file, or the empty list
	if the read stream is the terminal.

WRITER

	outputs the name of the current write stream file, or the empty list
	if the write stream is the screen.

SETREADPOS charpos

	command.  Sets the file pointer of the read stream file so that the
	next READLIST, etc., will begin reading at the "charpos"th character
	in the file, counting from 0.  (That is, SETREADPOS 0 will start
	reading from the beginning of the file.)  Meaningless if the read
	stream is the screen.

SETWRITEPOS charpos

	command.  Sets the file pointer of the write stream file so that the
	next PRINT, etc., will begin writing at the "charpos"th character
	in the file, counting from 0.  (That is, SETWRITEPOS 0 will start
	writing from the beginning of the file.)  Meaningless if the write
	stream is the screen.

READPOS

	outputs the file position of the current read stream file.

WRITEPOS

	outputs the file position of the current write stream file.

EOFP
EOF?

	predicate, outputs TRUE if there are no more characters to be
	read in the read stream file, FALSE otherwise.

FILEP filename
FILE? filename						(library procedure)

	predicate, outputs TRUE if a file of the specified name exists
	and can be read, FALSE otherwise.


TERMINAL ACCESS
---------------

KEYP
KEY?

	predicate, outputs TRUE if there are characters waiting to be
	read from the read stream.  If the read stream is a file, this
	is equivalent to NOT EOFP.  If the read stream is the terminal,
	then echoing is turned off and the terminal is set to CBREAK
	(character at a time instead of line at a time) mode.  It
	remains in this mode until some line-mode reading is requested
	(e.g., READLIST).  The Unix operating system forgets about any
	pending characters when it switches modes, so the first KEYP
	invocation will always output FALSE.

CLEARTEXT
CT

	command.  Clears the text window.

SETCURSOR vector

	command.  The input is a list of two numbers, the x and y
	coordinates of a text window position (origin in the upper left
	corner, positive direction is southeast).  The text cursor
	is moved to the requested position.  This command also forces
	the immediate printing of any buffered characters.

CURSOR

	outputs a list containing the current x and y coordinates of
	the text cursor.  Logo may get confused about the current
	cursor position if, e.g., you type in a long line that wraps
	around or your program prints escape codes that affect the
	screen strangely.

SETMARGINS vector

	command.  The input must be a list of two numbers, as for
	SETCURSOR.  The effect is to clear the screen and then arrange for
	all further printing to be shifted down and to the right according
	to the indicated margins.  Specifically, every time a newline
	character is printed (explicitly or implicitly) Logo will type
	x_margin spaces, and on every invocation of SETCURSOR the margins
	will be added to the input x and y coordinates.  (CURSOR will report
	the cursor position relative to the margins, so that this shift will
	be invisible to Logo programs.)  The purpose of this command is to
	accommodate the display of terminal screens in lecture halls with
	inadequate TV monitors that miss the top and left edges of the
	screen.

SETTEXTCOLOR foreground background
SETTC foreground background

	command (wxWidgets only).  The inputs are color numbers, or RGB color
	lists, as for turtle graphics.  The foreground and background colors
	for the textscreen/splitscreen text window are changed to the given
	values.  The change affects text already printed as well as future
	text printing; there is only one text color for the entire window.

	command (non-wxWidgets Windows and DOS extended only).  The inputs are
	color numbers, as for turtle graphics.  Future printing to the text
	window will use the specified colors for foreground (the characters
	printed) and background (the space under those characters).  Using
	STANDOUT will revert to the default text window colors.  In the DOS
	extended (ucblogo.exe) version, colors in textscreen mode are limited
	to numbers 0-7, and the coloring applies only to text printed by the
	program, not to the echoing of text typed by the user.  Neither
	limitation applies to the text portion of splitscreen mode, which is
	actually drawn as graphics internally.

INCREASEFONT
DECREASEFONT

	command (wxWidgets only).  Increase or decrease the size of the font
	used in the text and edit windows to the next larger or smaller
	available size.

SETTEXTSIZE height

	command (wxWidgets only).  Set the "point size" of the font used in
	the text and edit windows to the given integer input.  The desired
	size may not be available, in which case the nearest available size
	will be used.  Note: There is only a slight correlation between these
	integers and pixel sizes.  Our rough estimate is that the number of
	pixels of height is about 1.5 times the point size, but it varies for
	different fonts.  See SETLABELHEIGHT for a different approach used for
	the graphics window.

TEXTSIZE

	(wxWidgets only) outputs the "point size" of the font used in the text
	and edit windows.  See SETTEXTSIZE for a discussion of font sizing.
	See LABELSIZE for a different approach used for the graphics window.

SETFONT fontname

	command (wxWidgets only).  Set the font family used in all windows
	to the one named by the input.  Try 'Courier' or 'Monospace' as likely
	possibilities.  Not all computers have the same fonts installed.  It's
	a good idea to stick with monospace fonts (ones in which all
	characters have the same width).

SETTEXTFONT fontname

	command (wxWidgets only).  Set the font family used in the text window
	to the one named by the input.  Try 'Courier' or 'Monospace' as likely
	possibilities.  Not all computers have the same fonts installed.  It's
	a good idea to stick with monospace fonts (ones in which all
	characters have the same width).


FONT

	(wxWidgets only) outputs the name of the font family used in all
	windows.


ARITHMETIC
==========

NUMERIC OPERATIONS
------------------

SUM num1 num2
(SUM num1 num2 num3 ...)
num1 + num2

	outputs the sum of its inputs.

DIFFERENCE num1 num2
num1 - num2

	outputs the difference of its inputs.  Minus sign means infix
	difference in ambiguous contexts (when preceded by a complete
	expression), unless it is preceded by a space and followed
	by a nonspace.  (See also MINUS.)

MINUS num
- num

	outputs the negative of its input.  Minus sign means unary minus if
	the previous token is an infix operator or open parenthesis, or it is
	preceded by a space and followed by a nonspace.  There is a difference
	in binding strength between the two forms:

		MINUS 3 + 4	means	-(3+4)
		- 3 + 4		means	(-3)+4

PRODUCT num1 num2
(PRODUCT num1 num2 num3 ...)
num1 * num2

	outputs the product of its inputs.

QUOTIENT num1 num2
(QUOTIENT num)
num1 / num2

	outputs the quotient of its inputs.  The quotient of two integers
	is an integer if and only if the dividend is a multiple of the divisor.
	(In other words, QUOTIENT 5 2 is 2.5, not 2, but QUOTIENT 4 2 is
	2, not 2.0 -- it does the right thing.)  With a single input,
	QUOTIENT outputs the reciprocal of the input.

REMAINDER num1 num2

	outputs the remainder on dividing "num1" by "num2"; both must be
	integers and the result is an integer with the same sign as num1.

MODULO num1 num2

	outputs the remainder on dividing "num1" by "num2"; both must be
	integers and the result is an integer with the same sign as num2.

INT num

	outputs its input with fractional part removed, i.e., an integer
	with the same sign as the input, whose absolute value is the
	largest integer less than or equal to the absolute value of
	the input.

ROUND num

	outputs the nearest integer to the input.

SQRT num

	outputs the square root of the input, which must be nonnegative.

POWER num1 num2

	outputs "num1" to the "num2" power.  If num1 is negative, then
	num2 must be an integer.

EXP num

	outputs e (2.718281828+) to the input power.

LOG10 num

	outputs the common logarithm of the input.

LN num

	outputs the natural logarithm of the input.

SIN degrees

	outputs the sine of its input, which is taken in degrees.

RADSIN radians

	outputs the sine of its input, which is taken in radians.

COS degrees

	outputs the cosine of its input, which is taken in degrees.

RADCOS radians

	outputs the cosine of its input, which is taken in radians.

ARCTAN num
(ARCTAN x y)

	outputs the arctangent, in degrees, of its input.  With two
	inputs, outputs the arctangent of y/x, if x is nonzero, or
	90 or -90 depending on the sign of y, if x is zero.

RADARCTAN num
(RADARCTAN x y)

	outputs the arctangent, in radians, of its input.  With two
	inputs, outputs the arctangent of y/x, if x is nonzero, or
	pi/2 or -pi/2 depending on the sign of y, if x is zero.

	The expression 2*(RADARCTAN 0 1) can be used to get the
	value of pi.

ISEQ from to						(library procedure)

	outputs a list of the integers from FROM to TO, inclusive.

		? show iseq 3 7
		[3 4 5 6 7]
		? show iseq 7 3
		[7 6 5 4 3]

RSEQ from to count					(library procedure)

	outputs a list of COUNT equally spaced rational numbers
	between FROM and TO, inclusive.

		? show rseq 3 5 9
		[3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.25 4.5 4.75 5]
		? show rseq 3 5 5
		[3 3.5 4 4.5 5]


PREDICATES
----------

LESSP num1 num2
LESS? num1 num2
num1 < num2

	outputs TRUE if its first input is strictly less than its second.

GREATERP num1 num2
GREATER? num1 num2
num1 > num2

	outputs TRUE if its first input is strictly greater than its second.

LESSEQUALP num1 num2
LESSEQUAL? num1 num2
num1 <= num2

	outputs TRUE if its first input is less than or equal to its second.

GREATEREQUALP num1 num2
GREATEREQUAL? num1 num2
num1 >= num2

	outputs TRUE if its first input is greater than or equal to its second.


RANDOM NUMBERS
--------------
RANDOM num
(RANDOM start end)

	with one input, outputs a random nonnegative integer less than its
	input, which must be a positive integer.

	With two inputs, RANDOM outputs a random integer greater than or
	equal to the first input, and less than or equal to the second
	input.  Both inputs must be integers, and the first must be less
	than the second.  (RANDOM 0 9) is equivalent to RANDOM 10;
	(RANDOM 3 8) is equivalent to (RANDOM 6)+3.

RERANDOM
(RERANDOM seed)

	command.  Makes the results of RANDOM reproducible.  Ordinarily
	the sequence of random numbers is different each time Logo is
	used.  If you need the same sequence of pseudo-random numbers
	repeatedly, e.g. to debug a program, say RERANDOM before the
	first invocation of RANDOM.  If you need more than one repeatable
	sequence, you can give RERANDOM an integer input; each possible
	input selects a unique sequence of numbers.


PRINT FORMATTING
----------------

FORM num width precision

	outputs a word containing a printable representation of "num",
	possibly preceded by spaces (and therefore not a number for
	purposes of performing arithmetic operations), with at least
	"width" characters, including exactly "precision" digits after
	the decimal point.  (If "precision" is 0 then there will be no
	decimal point in the output.)

	As a debugging feature, (FORM num -1 format) will print the
	floating point "num" according to the C printf "format", to allow

		to hex :num
		op form :num -1 "|%08X %08X|
		end

	to allow finding out the exact result of floating point operations.
	The precise format needed may be machine-dependent.


BITWISE OPERATIONS
------------------

BITAND num1 num2
(BITAND num1 num2 num3 ...)

	outputs the bitwise AND of its inputs, which must be integers.

BITOR num1 num2
(BITOR num1 num2 num3 ...)

	outputs the bitwise OR of its inputs, which must be integers.

BITXOR num1 num2
(BITXOR num1 num2 num3 ...)

	outputs the bitwise EXCLUSIVE OR of its inputs, which must be
	integers.

BITNOT num

	outputs the bitwise NOT of its input, which must be an integer.

ASHIFT num1 num2

	outputs "num1" arithmetic-shifted to the left by "num2" bits.
	If num2 is negative, the shift is to the right with sign
	extension.  The inputs must be integers.

LSHIFT num1 num2

	outputs "num1" logical-shifted to the left by "num2" bits.
	If num2 is negative, the shift is to the right with zero fill.
	The inputs must be integers.


LOGICAL OPERATIONS
==================

AND tf1 tf2
(AND tf1 tf2 tf3 ...)

	outputs TRUE if all inputs are TRUE, otherwise FALSE.  All inputs
	must be TRUE or FALSE.  (Comparison is case-insensitive regardless
	of the value of CASEIGNOREDP.  That is, "true" or "True" or "TRUE"
	are all the same.)  An input can be a list, in which case it is
	taken as an expression to run; that expression must produce a TRUE
	or FALSE value.  List expressions are evaluated from left to right;
	as soon as a FALSE value is found, the remaining inputs are not
	examined.  Example:
		MAKE "RESULT AND [NOT (:X = 0)] [(1 / :X) > .5]
	to avoid the division by zero if the first part is false.

OR tf1 tf2
(OR tf1 tf2 tf3 ...)

	outputs TRUE if any input is TRUE, otherwise FALSE.  All inputs
	must be TRUE or FALSE.  (Comparison is case-insensitive regardless
	of the value of CASEIGNOREDP.  That is, "true" or "True" or "TRUE"
	are all the same.)  An input can be a list, in which case it is
	taken as an expression to run; that expression must produce a TRUE
	or FALSE value.  List expressions are evaluated from left to right;
	as soon as a TRUE value is found, the remaining inputs are not
	examined.  Example:
		IF OR :X=0 [some.long.computation] [...]
	to avoid the long computation if the first condition is met.

NOT tf

	outputs TRUE if the input is FALSE, and vice versa.  The input can be
	a list, in which case it is taken as an expression to run; that
	expression must produce a TRUE or FALSE value.


GRAPHICS
========

Berkeley Logo provides traditional Logo turtle graphics with one turtle.
Multiple turtles, dynamic turtles, and collision detection are not supported.
This is the most hardware-dependent part of Logo; some features may exist
on some machines but not others.  Nevertheless, the goal has been to make
Logo programs as portable as possible, rather than to take fullest advantage
of the capabilities of each machine.  In particular, Logo attempts to scale
the screen so that turtle coordinates [-100 -100] and [100 100] fit on the
graphics window, and so that the aspect ratio is 1:1.

The center of the graphics window (which may or may not be the entire
screen, depending on the machine used) is turtle location [0 0].  Positive
X is to the right; positive Y is up.  Headings (angles) are measured in
degrees clockwise from the positive Y axis.  (This differs from the common
mathematical convention of measuring angles counterclockwise from the
positive X axis.)  The turtle is represented as an isoceles triangle; the
actual turtle position is at the midpoint of the base (the short side).
However, the turtle is drawn one step behind its actual position, so that
the display of the base of the turtle's triangle does not obscure a line
drawn perpendicular to it (as would happen after drawing a square).

Colors are, of course, hardware-dependent.  However, Logo provides partial
hardware independence by interpreting color numbers 0 through 7 uniformly
on all computers:

	0  black	1  blue		2  green	3  cyan
	4  red		5  magenta	6  yellow	7 white

Where possible, Logo provides additional user-settable colors; how many
are available depends on the hardware and operating system environment.
If at least 16 colors are available, Logo tries to provide uniform
initial settings for the colors 8-15:

	 8  brown	 9  tan		10  forest	11  aqua
	12  salmon	13  purple	14  orange	15  grey

Logo begins with a black background and white pen.


TURTLE MOTION
-------------

FORWARD dist
FD dist

	moves the turtle forward, in the direction that it's facing, by
	the specified distance (measured in turtle steps).

BACK dist
BK dist

	moves the turtle backward, i.e., exactly opposite to the direction
	that it's facing, by the specified distance.  (The heading of the
	turtle does not change.)

LEFT degrees
LT degrees

	turns the turtle counterclockwise by the specified angle, measured
	in degrees (1/360 of a circle).

RIGHT degrees
RT degrees

	turns the turtle clockwise by the specified angle, measured in
	degrees (1/360 of a circle).

SETPOS pos

	moves the turtle to an absolute position in the graphics window.  The
	input is a list of two numbers, the X and Y coordinates.

SETXY xcor ycor

	moves the turtle to an absolute position in the graphics window.  The
	two inputs are numbers, the X and Y coordinates.

SETX xcor

	moves the turtle horizontally from its old position to a new
	absolute horizontal coordinate.  The input is the new X
	coordinate.

SETY ycor

	moves the turtle vertically from its old position to a new
	absolute vertical coordinate.  The input is the new Y
	coordinate.

SETHEADING degrees
SETH degrees

	turns the turtle to a new absolute heading.  The input is
	a number, the heading in degrees clockwise from the positive
	Y axis.

HOME

	moves the turtle to the center of the screen.  Equivalent to
	SETPOS [0 0] SETHEADING 0.

ARC angle radius

	draws an arc of a circle, with the turtle at the center, with the
	specified radius, starting at the turtle's heading and extending
	clockwise through the specified angle.  The turtle does not move.

TURTLE MOTION QUERIES
---------------------

POS

	outputs the turtle's current position, as a list of two
	numbers, the X and Y coordinates.

XCOR							(library procedure)

	outputs a number, the turtle's X coordinate.

YCOR							(library procedure)

	outputs a number, the turtle's Y coordinate.

HEADING

	outputs a number, the turtle's heading in degrees.

TOWARDS pos

	outputs a number, the heading at which the turtle should be
	facing so that it would point from its current position to
	the position given as the input.

SCRUNCH

	outputs a list containing two numbers, the X and Y scrunch
	factors, as used by SETSCRUNCH.  (But note that SETSCRUNCH
	takes two numbers as inputs, not one list of numbers.)


TURTLE AND WINDOW CONTROL
-------------------------

SHOWTURTLE
ST

	makes the turtle visible.

HIDETURTLE
HT

	makes the turtle invisible.  It's a good idea to do this while
	you're in the middle of a complicated drawing, because hiding
	the turtle speeds up the drawing substantially.

CLEAN

	erases all lines that the turtle has drawn on the graphics window.
	The turtle's state (position, heading, pen mode, etc.) is not
	changed.

CLEARSCREEN
CS

	erases the graphics window and sends the turtle to its initial
	position and heading.  Like HOME and CLEAN together.

WRAP

	tells the turtle to enter wrap mode:  From now on, if the turtle
	is asked to move past the boundary of the graphics window, it
	will "wrap around" and reappear at the opposite edge of the
	window.  The top edge wraps to the bottom edge, while the left
	edge wraps to the right edge.  (So the window is topologically
	equivalent to a torus.)  This is the turtle's initial mode.
	Compare WINDOW and FENCE.

WINDOW

	tells the turtle to enter window mode:  From now on, if the turtle
	is asked to move past the boundary of the graphics window, it
	will move offscreen.  The visible graphics window is considered
	as just part of an infinite graphics plane; the turtle can be
	anywhere on the plane.  (If you lose the turtle, HOME will bring
	it back to the center of the window.)  Compare WRAP and FENCE.

FENCE

	tells the turtle to enter fence mode:  From now on, if the turtle
	is asked to move past the boundary of the graphics window, it
	will move as far as it can and then stop at the edge with an
	"out of bounds" error message.  Compare WRAP and WINDOW.

FILL

	fills in a region of the graphics window containing the turtle
	and bounded by lines that have been drawn earlier.  This is not
	portable; it doesn't work for all machines, and may not work
	exactly the same way on different machines.

FILLED color instructions

	runs the instructions, remembering all points visited by turtle
	motion commands, starting *and ending* with the turtle's initial
	position.  Then draws (ignoring penmode) the resulting polygon,
	in the current pen color, filling the polygon with the given color,
	which can be a color number or an RGB list.  The instruction list
	cannot include another FILLED invocation.

LABEL text

	takes a word or list as input, and prints the input on the
	graphics window, starting at the turtle's position.

SETLABELHEIGHT height

	command (wxWidgets only).  Takes a positive integer argument and tries
	to set the font size so that the character height (including
	descenders) is that many turtle steps.  This will be different from
	the number of screen pixels if SETSCRUNCH has been used.  Also, note
	that SETSCRUNCH changes the font size to try to preserve this height
	in turtle steps.  Note that the query operation corresponding to this
	command is LABELSIZE, not LABELHEIGHT, because it tells you the width
	as well as the height of characters in the current font.

TEXTSCREEN
TS

	rearranges the size and position of windows to maximize the
	space available in the text window (the window used for
	interaction with Logo).  The details differ among machines.
	Compare SPLITSCREEN and FULLSCREEN.

FULLSCREEN
FS

	rearranges the size and position of windows to maximize the space
	available in the graphics window.  The details differ among machines.
	Compare SPLITSCREEN and TEXTSCREEN.

	Since there must be a text window to allow printing (including the
	printing of the Logo prompt), Logo automatically switches from
	fullscreen to splitscreen whenever anything is printed.

	In the DOS version, switching from fullscreen to splitscreen loses the
	part of the picture that's hidden by the text window.  [This design
	decision follows from the scarcity of memory, so that the extra memory
	to remember an invisible part of a drawing seems too expensive.]

SPLITSCREEN
SS

	rearranges the size and position of windows to allow some room for
	text interaction while also keeping most of the graphics window
	visible.  The details differ among machines.  Compare TEXTSCREEN
	and FULLSCREEN.

SETSCRUNCH xscale yscale

	adjusts the aspect ratio and scaling of the graphics display.
	After this command is used, all further turtle motion will be
	adjusted by multiplying the horizontal and vertical extent of
	the motion by the two numbers given as inputs.  For example,
	after the instruction "SETSCRUNCH 2 1" motion at a heading of
	45 degrees will move twice as far horizontally as vertically.
	If your squares don't come out square, try this.  (Alternatively,
	you can deliberately misadjust the aspect ratio to draw an ellipse.)

	In wxWidgets only, SETSCRUNCH also changes the size of the text font
	used for the LABEL command to try to keep the height of characters
	scaled with the vertical turtle step size.

	For all modern computers For DOS machines, the scale factors are
	initially set according to what the hardware claims the aspect ratio
	is, but the hardware sometimes lies.  For DOS, the values set by
	SETSCRUNCH are remembered in a file (called SCRUNCH.DAT) and are
	automatically put into effect when a Logo session begins.

REFRESH

	(command) tells Logo to remember the turtle's motions so that they
	can be used for high-resolution printing (wxWidgets) or to refresh
	the graphics window if it is moved, resized, or overlayed
	(non-wxWidgets).  This is the default.

NOREFRESH

	(command) tells Logo not to remember the turtle's motions, which may
	be useful to save time and memory if your program is interactive or
	animated, rather than drawing a static picture you'll want to print
	later (wxWidgets).  In non-wxWidgets versions, using NOREFRESH may
	prevent Logo from restoring the graphics image after the window is
	moved, resized, or overlayed.


TURTLE AND WINDOW QUERIES
-------------------------

SHOWNP
SHOWN?

	outputs TRUE if the turtle is shown (visible), FALSE if the
	turtle is hidden.  See SHOWTURTLE and HIDETURTLE.

SCREENMODE

	outputs the word TEXTSCREEN, SPLITSCREEN, or FULLSCREEN depending
	on the current screen mode.

TURTLEMODE

	outputs the word WRAP, FENCE, or WINDOW depending on the current
	turtle mode.

LABELSIZE

	(wxWidgets only) outputs a list of two positive integers, the width
	and height of characters displayed by LABEL measured in turtle steps
	(which will be different from screen pixels if SETSCRUNCH has been
	used).  There is no SETLABELSIZE because the width and height of a
	font are not separately controllable, so the inverse of this operation
	is SETLABELHEIGHT, which takes just one number for the desired height.


PEN AND BACKGROUND CONTROL
--------------------------

The turtle carries a pen that can draw pictures.  At any time the pen
can be UP (in which case moving the turtle does not change what's on the
graphics screen) or DOWN (in which case the turtle leaves a trace).
If the pen is down, it can operate in one of three modes: PAINT (so that it
draws lines when the turtle moves), ERASE (so that it erases any lines
that might have been drawn on or through that path earlier), or REVERSE
(so that it inverts the status of each point along the turtle's path).

PENDOWN
PD

	sets the pen's position to DOWN, without changing its mode.

PENUP
PU

	sets the pen's position to UP, without changing its mode.

PENPAINT
PPT

	sets the pen's position to DOWN and mode to PAINT.

PENERASE
PE

	sets the pen's position to DOWN and mode to ERASE.

PENREVERSE
PX

	sets the pen's position to DOWN and mode to REVERSE.
	(This may interact in system-dependent ways with use of color.)

SETPENCOLOR colornumber.or.rgblist
SETPC colornumber.or.rgblist

	sets the pen color to the given number, which must be a nonnegative
	integer.  There are initial assignments for the first 16 colors:

	 0  black	 1  blue	 2  green	 3  cyan
	 4  red		 5  magenta	 6  yellow	 7 white
	 8  brown	 9  tan		10  forest	11  aqua
	12  salmon	13  purple	14  orange	15  grey

	but other colors can be assigned to numbers by the PALETTE command.
	Alternatively, sets the pen color to the given RGB values (a list of
	three nonnegative numbers less than 100 specifying the percent
	saturation of red, green, and blue in the desired color).

SETPALETTE colornumber rgblist

	sets the actual color corresponding to a given number, if allowed by
	the hardware and operating system.  Colornumber must be an integer
	greater than or equal to 8.  (Logo tries to keep the first 8 colors
	constant.)  The second input is a list of three nonnegative numbers
	less than 100 specifying the percent saturation of red, green, and
	blue in the desired color.

SETPENSIZE size

	sets the thickness of the pen.  The input is either a single positive
	integer or a list of two positive integers (for horizontal and
	vertical thickness).  Some versions pay no attention to the second
	number, but always have a square pen.

SETPENPATTERN pattern

	sets hardware-dependent pen characteristics.  This command is
	not guaranteed compatible between implementations on different
	machines.

SETPEN list						(library procedure)

	sets the pen's position, mode, thickness, and hardware-dependent
	characteristics according to the information in the input list, which
	should be taken from an earlier invocation of PEN.

SETBACKGROUND colornumber.or.rgblist
SETBG colornumber.or.rgblist

	set the screen background color by slot number or RGB values.
	See SETPENCOLOR for details.


PEN QUERIES
-----------

PENDOWNP
PENDOWN?

	outputs TRUE if the pen is down, FALSE if it's up.

PENMODE

	outputs one of the words PAINT, ERASE, or REVERSE according to
	the current pen mode.

PENCOLOR
PC

	outputs a color number, a nonnegative integer that is associated with
	a particular color, or a list of RGB values if such a list was used as
	the most recent input to SETPENCOLOR.  There are initial assignments
	for the first 16 colors:

	 0  black	 1  blue	 2  green	 3  cyan
	 4  red		 5  magenta	 6  yellow	 7 white
	 8  brown	 9  tan		10  forest	11  aqua
	12  salmon	13  purple	14  orange	15  grey

	but other colors can be assigned to numbers by the PALETTE command.

PALETTE colornumber

	outputs a list of three nonnegative numbers less than 100 specifying
	the percent saturation of red, green, and blue in the color associated
	with the given number.

PENSIZE


	outputs a list of two positive integers, specifying the horizontal
	and vertical thickness of the turtle pen.  (In some implementations,
	including wxWidgets, the two numbers are always equal.)

PENPATTERN

	outputs system-specific pen information.

PEN							(library procedure)

	outputs a list containing the pen's position, mode, thickness, and
	hardware-specific characteristics, for use by SETPEN.

BACKGROUND
BG

	outputs the graphics background color, either as a slot number or
	as an RGB list, whichever way it was set.  (See PENCOLOR.)


SAVING AND LOADING PICTURES
---------------------------

SAVEPICT filename

	command.  Writes a file with the specified name containing the
	state of the graphics window, including any nonstandard color
	palette settings, in Logo's internal format.  This picture can
	be restored to the screen using LOADPICT.  The format is not
	portable between platforms, nor is it readable by other programs.
	See EPSPICT to export Logo graphics for other programs.

LOADPICT filename

	command.  Reads the specified file, which must have been
	written by a SAVEPICT command, and restores the graphics
	window and color palette settings to the values stored in
	the file.  Any drawing previously on the screen is cleared.

EPSPICT filename

	command.  Writes a file with the specified name, containing
	an Encapsulated Postscript (EPS) representation of the state
	of the graphics window.  This file can be imported into other
	programs that understand EPS format.  Restrictions: the
	drawing cannot use FILL, PENERASE, or PENREVERSE; any
	such instructions will be ignored in the translation to
	Postscript form.


MOUSE QUERIES
-------------


MOUSEPOS

	outputs the coordinates of the mouse, provided that it's within the
	graphics window, in turtle coordinates.  If the mouse is outside the
	graphics window, then the last position within the window is returned.
	Exception:  If a mouse button is pressed within the graphics window
	and held while the mouse is dragged outside the window, the mouse's
	position is returned as if the window were big enough to include it.

CLICKPOS

	outputs the coordinates that the mouse was at when a mouse button
	was most recently pushed, provided that that position was within the
	graphics window, in turtle coordinates.  (wxWidgets only)

BUTTONP
BUTTON?

	outputs TRUE if a mouse button is down and the mouse is over the
	graphics window.  Once the button is down, BUTTONP remains true until
	the button is released, even if the mouse is dragged out of the
	graphics window.

BUTTON

	outputs 0 if no mouse button has been pushed inside the Logo window
	since the last call to BUTTON.  Otherwise, it outputs an integer
	between 1 and 3 indicating which button was most recently pressed.
	Ordinarily 1 means left, 2 means right, and 3 means center, but
	operating systems may reconfigure these.



WORKSPACE MANAGEMENT
====================

PROCEDURE DEFINITION
--------------------

TO procname :input1 :input2 ...				(special form)

	command.  Prepares Logo to accept a procedure definition.  The
	procedure will be named "procname" and there must not already
	be a procedure by that name.  The inputs will be called "input1"
	etc.  Any number of inputs are allowed, including none.  Names
	of procedures and inputs are case-insensitive.

	Unlike every other Logo procedure, TO takes as its inputs the
	actual words typed in the instruction line, as if they were
	all quoted, rather than the results of evaluating expressions
	to provide the inputs.  (That's what "special form" means.)

	This version of Logo allows variable numbers of inputs to a
	procedure.  After the procedure name come four kinds of
	things, *in this order*:

	    1.   0 or more REQUIRED inputs    :FOO :FROBOZZ
	    2.   0 or more OPTIONAL inputs    [:BAZ 87] [:THINGO 5+9]
	    3.   0 or 1 REST input            [:GARPLY]
	    4.   0 or 1 DEFAULT number        5

	Every procedure has a MINIMUM, DEFAULT, and MAXIMUM
	number of inputs.  (The latter can be infinite.)

	The MINIMUM number of inputs is the number of required inputs,
	which must come first.  A required input is indicated by the

			:inputname

	notation.

	After all the required inputs can be zero or more optional inputs,
	each of which is represented by the following notation:

			[:inputname default.value.expression]

	When the procedure is invoked, if actual inputs are not supplied
	for these optional inputs, the default value expressions are
	evaluated to set values for the corresponding input names.  The
	inputs are processed from left to right, so a default value
	expression can be based on earlier inputs.  Example:

			to proc :inlist [:startvalue first :inlist]

	If the procedure is invoked by saying

			proc [a b c]

	then the variable INLIST will have the value [A B C] and the
	variable STARTVALUE will have the value A.  If the procedure
	is invoked by saying

			(proc [a b c] "x)

	then INLIST will have the value [A B C] and STARTVALUE will
	have the value X.

	After all the required and optional input can come a single "rest"
	input, represented by the following notation:

			[:inputname]

	This is a rest input rather than an optional input because there
	is no default value expression.  There can be at most one rest
	input.  When the procedure is invoked, the value of this inputname
	will be a list containing all of the actual inputs provided that
	were not used for required or optional inputs.  Example:

			to proc :in1 [:in2 "foo] [:in3 "baz] [:in4]

	If this procedure is invoked by saying

			proc "x

	then IN1 has the value X, IN2 has the value FOO, IN3 has the value
	BAZ, and IN4 has the value [] (the empty list).  If it's invoked
	by saying

			(proc "a "b "c "d "e)

	then IN1 has the value A, IN2 has the value B, IN3 has the value C,
	and IN4 has the value [D E].

	The MAXIMUM number of inputs for a procedure is infinite if a
	rest input is given; otherwise, it is the number of required
	inputs plus the number of optional inputs.

	The DEFAULT number of inputs for a procedure, which is the number
	of inputs that it will accept if its invocation is not enclosed
	in parentheses, is ordinarily equal to the minimum number.  If
	you want a different default number you can indicate that by
	putting the desired default number as the last thing on the
	TO line.  example:

			to proc :in1 [:in2 "foo] [:in3] 3

	This procedure has a minimum of one input, a default of three
	inputs, and an infinite maximum.

	Logo responds to the TO command by entering procedure definition
	mode.  The prompt character changes from "?" to ">" and whatever
	instructions you type become part of the definition until you
	type a line containing only the word END.

DEFINE procname text

	command.  Defines a procedure with name "procname" and text "text".
	If there is already a procedure with the same name, the new
	definition replaces the old one.  The text input must be a list
	whose members are lists.  The first member is a list of inputs;
	it looks like a TO line but without the word TO, without the
	procedure name, and without the colons before input names.  In
	other words, the members of this first sublist are words for
	the names of required inputs and lists for the names of optional
	or rest inputs.  The remaining sublists of the text input make
	up the body of the procedure, with one sublist for each instruction
	line of the body.  (There is no END line in the text input.)
	It is an error to redefine a primitive procedure unless the variable
	REDEFP has the value TRUE.

TEXT procname

	outputs the text of the procedure named "procname" in the form
	expected by DEFINE: a list of lists, the first of which describes
	the inputs to the procedure and the rest of which are the lines of
	its body.  The text does not reflect formatting information used
	when the procedure was defined, such as continuation lines and
	extra spaces.

FULLTEXT procname

	outputs a representation of the procedure "procname" in which
	formatting information is preserved.  If the procedure was defined
	with TO, EDIT, or LOAD, then the output is a list of words.  Each
	word represents one entire line of the definition in the form
	output by READWORD, including extra spaces and continuation lines.
	The last member of the output represents the END line.  If the
	procedure was defined with DEFINE, then the output is a list of
	lists.  If these lists are printed, one per line, the result will
	look like a definition using TO.  Note: the output from FULLTEXT
	is not suitable for use as input to DEFINE!

COPYDEF newname oldname

	command.  Makes "newname" a procedure identical to "oldname".
	The latter may be a primitive.  If "newname" was already defined,
	its previous definition is lost.  If "newname" was already a
	primitive, the redefinition is not permitted unless the variable
	REDEFP has the value TRUE.

	Note: dialects of Logo differ as to the order of inputs to COPYDEF.
	This dialect uses "MAKE order," not "NAME order."


VARIABLE DEFINITION
-------------------

MAKE varname value

	command.  Assigns the value "value" to the variable named "varname",
	which must be a word.  Variable names are case-insensitive.  If a
	variable with the same name already exists, the value of that
	variable is changed.  If not, a new global variable is created.

NAME value varname					(library procedure)

	command.  Same as MAKE but with the inputs in reverse order.

LOCAL varname
LOCAL varnamelist
(LOCAL varname1 varname2 ...)

	command.  Accepts as inputs one or more words, or a list of
	words.  A variable is created for each of these words, with
	that word as its name.  The variables are local to the
	currently running procedure.  Logo variables follow dynamic
	scope rules; a variable that is local to a procedure is
	available to any subprocedure invoked by that procedure.
	The variables created by LOCAL have no initial value; they
	must be assigned a value (e.g., with MAKE) before the procedure
	attempts to read their value.

LOCALMAKE varname value				(library procedure)

	command.  Makes the named variable local, like LOCAL, and
	assigns it the given value, like MAKE.

THING varname
:quoted.varname

	outputs the value of the variable whose name is the input.
	If there is more than one such variable, the innermost local
	variable of that name is chosen.  The colon notation is an
	abbreviation not for THING but for the combination

				thing "

	so that :FOO means THING "FOO.

GLOBAL varname
GLOBAL varnamelist
(GLOBAL varname1 varname2 ...)

	command.  Accepts as inputs one or more words, or a list of
	words.  A global variable is created for each of these words, with
	that word as its name.  The only reason this is necessary is that
	you might want to use the "setter" notation SETXYZ for a variable
	XYZ that does not already have a value; GLOBAL "XYZ makes that legal.
	Note: If there is currently a local variable of the same name, this
	command does *not* make Logo use the global value instead of the
	local one.


PROPERTY LISTS
--------------

Note: Names of property lists are always case-insensitive.  Names of
individual properties are case-sensitive or case-insensitive depending
on the value of CASEIGNOREDP, which is TRUE by default.

In principle, every possible name is the name of a property list, which
is initially empty.  So Logo never gives a "no such property list" error,
as it would for undefined procedure or variable names.  But the primitive
procedures that deal with "all" property lists (CONTENTS, PLISTS, etc.)
list only nonempty ones.  To "erase" a property list (see ERASE below)
means to make it empty, removing all properties from it.

PPROP plistname propname value

	command.  Adds a property to the "plistname" property list
	with name "propname" and value "value".

GPROP plistname propname

	outputs the value of the "propname" property in the "plistname"
	property list, or the empty list if there is no such property.

REMPROP plistname propname

	command.  Removes the property named "propname" from the
	property list named "plistname".

PLIST plistname

	outputs a list whose odd-numbered members are the names, and
	whose even-numbered members are the values, of the properties
	in the property list named "plistname".  The output is a copy
	of the actual property list; changing properties later will not
	magically change a list output earlier by PLIST.


PREDICATES
----------

PROCEDUREP name
PROCEDURE? name

	outputs TRUE if the input is the name of a procedure.

PRIMITIVEP name
PRIMITIVE? name

	outputs TRUE if the input is the name of a primitive procedure
	(one built into Logo).  Note that some of the procedures
	described in this document are library procedures, not primitives.

DEFINEDP name
DEFINED? name

	outputs TRUE if the input is the name of a user-defined procedure,
	including a library procedure.

NAMEP name
NAME? name

	outputs TRUE if the input is the name of a variable.

PLISTP name
PLIST? name

	outputs TRUE if the input is the name of a *nonempty* property list.
	(In principle every word is the name of a property list; if you haven't
	put any properties in it, PLIST of that name outputs an empty list,
	rather than giving an error message.)


QUERIES
-------

Note:  All procedures whose input is indicated as "contentslist" will
accept a single word (taken as a procedure name), a list of words (taken
as names of procedures), or a list of three lists as described under
the CONTENTS command above.

CONTENTS

	outputs a "contents list," i.e., a list of three lists containing
	names of defined procedures, variables, and property lists
	respectively.  This list includes all unburied named items in
	the workspace.

BURIED

	outputs a contents list including all buried named items in
	the workspace.

TRACED

	outputs a contents list including all traced named items in
	the workspace.

STEPPED

	outputs a contents list including all stepped named items in
	the workspace.

PROCEDURES

	outputs a list of the names of all unburied user-defined procedures
	in the workspace.  Note that this is a list of names, not a
	contents list.  (However, procedures that require a contents list
	as input will accept this list.)

PRIMITIVES

	outputs a list of the names of all primitive procedures
	in the workspace.  Note that this is a list of names, not a
	contents list.  (However, procedures that require a contents list
	as input will accept this list.)

NAMES

	outputs a contents list consisting of an empty list (indicating
	no procedure names) followed by a list of all unburied variable
	names in the workspace.

PLISTS

	outputs a contents list consisting of two empty lists (indicating
	no procedures or variables) followed by a list of all unburied
	nonempty property lists in the workspace.

NAMELIST varname					(library procedure)
NAMELIST varnamelist

	outputs a contents list consisting of an empty list followed by
	a list of the name or names given as input.  This is useful in
	conjunction with workspace control procedures that require a contents
	list as input.

PLLIST plname						(library procedure)
PLLIST plnamelist

	outputs a contents list consisting of two empty lists followed by
	a list of the name or names given as input.  This is useful in
	conjunction with workspace control procedures that require a contents
	list as input.

ARITY procedurename

	outputs a list of three numbers: the minimum, default, and maximum
	number of inputs for the procedure whose name is the input.  It is an
	error if there is no such procedure.  A maximum of -1 means that the
	number of inputs is unlimited.

NODES

	outputs a list of two numbers.  The first represents the number of
	nodes of memory currently in use.  The second shows the maximum
	number of nodes that have been in use at any time since the last
	invocation of NODES.  (A node is a small block of computer memory
	as used by Logo.  Each number uses one node.  Each non-numeric
	word uses one node, plus some non-node memory for the characters
	in the word.  Each array takes one node, plus some non-node
	memory, as well as the memory required by its elements.  Each
	list requires one node per element, as well as the memory within
	the elements.)  If you want to track the memory use of an
	algorithm, it is best if you invoke GC at the beginning of each
	iteration, since otherwise the maximum will include storage that
	is unused but not yet collected.


INSPECTION
----------

PRINTOUT contentslist
PO contentslist

	command.  Prints to the write stream the definitions of all
	procedures, variables, and property lists named in the input
	contents list.

POALL							(library procedure)

	command.  Prints all unburied definitions in the workspace.
	Abbreviates PO CONTENTS.

POPS							(library procedure)

	command.  Prints the definitions of all unburied procedures in
	the workspace.  Abbreviates PO PROCEDURES.

PONS							(library procedure)

	command.  Prints the definitions of all unburied variables in
	the workspace.  Abbreviates PO NAMES.

POPLS							(library procedure)

	command.  Prints the contents of all unburied nonempty property
	lists in the workspace.  Abbreviates PO PLISTS.

PON varname						(library procedure)
PON varnamelist

	command.  Prints the definitions of the named variable(s).
	Abbreviates PO NAMELIST varname(list).

POPL plname						(library procedure)
POPL plnamelist

	command.  Prints the definitions of the named property list(s).
	Abbreviates PO PLLIST plname(list).

POT contentslist

	command.  Prints the title lines of the named procedures and
	the definitions of the named variables and property lists.
	For property lists, the entire list is shown on one line
	instead of as a series of PPROP instructions as in PO.

POTS							(library procedure)

	command.  Prints the title lines of all unburied procedures
	in the workspace.  Abbreviates POT PROCEDURES.


WORKSPACE CONTROL
-----------------

ERASE contentslist
ER contentslist

	command.  Erases from the workspace the procedures, variables,
	and property lists named in the input.  Primitive procedures may
	not be erased unless the variable REDEFP has the value TRUE.

ERALL

	command.  Erases all unburied procedures, variables, and property
	lists from the workspace.  Abbreviates ERASE CONTENTS.

ERPS

	command.  Erases all unburied procedures from the workspace.
	Abbreviates ERASE PROCEDURES.

ERNS

	command.  Erases all unburied variables from the workspace.
	Abbreviates ERASE NAMES.

ERPLS

	command.  Erases all unburied property lists from the workspace.
	Abbreviates ERASE PLISTS.

ERN varname						(library procedure)
ERN varnamelist

	command.  Erases from the workspace the variable(s) named in the
	input.  Abbreviates ERASE NAMELIST varname(list).

ERPL plname						(library procedure)
ERPL plnamelist

	command.  Erases from the workspace the property list(s) named in the
	input.  Abbreviates ERASE PLLIST plname(list).

BURY contentslist

	command.  Buries the procedures, variables, and property lists
	named in the input.  A buried item is not included in the lists
	output by CONTENTS, PROCEDURES, VARIABLES, and PLISTS, but is
	included in the list output by BURIED.  By implication, buried
	things are not printed by POALL or saved by SAVE.

BURYALL							(library procedure)

	command.  Abbreviates BURY CONTENTS.

BURYNAME varname					(library procedure)
BURYNAME varnamelist

	command.  Abbreviates BURY NAMELIST varname(list).

UNBURY contentslist

	command.  Unburies the procedures, variables, and property lists
	named in the input.  That is, the named items will be returned to
	view in CONTENTS, etc.

UNBURYALL						(library procedure)

	command.  Abbreviates UNBURY BURIED.

UNBURYNAME varname					(library procedure)
UNBURYNAME varnamelist

	command.  Abbreviates UNBURY NAMELIST varname(list).

BURIEDP contentslist
BURIED? contentslist

	outputs TRUE if the first procedure, variable, or property list named
	in the contents list is buried, FALSE if not.  Only the first thing in
	the list is tested; the most common use will be with a word as input,
	naming a procedure, but a contents list is allowed so that you can
	BURIEDP [[] [VARIABLE]] or BURIEDP [[] [] [PROPLIST]].

TRACE contentslist

	command.  Marks the named items for tracing.  A message is printed
	whenever a traced procedure is invoked, giving the actual input
	values, and whenever a traced procedure STOPs or OUTPUTs.  A
	message is printed whenever a new value is assigned to a traced
	variable using MAKE.  A message is printed whenever a new property
	is given to a traced property list using PPROP.

UNTRACE contentslist

	command.  Turns off tracing for the named items.

TRACEDP contentslist
TRACED? contentslist

	outputs TRUE if the first procedure, variable, or property list named
	in the contents list is traced, FALSE if not.  Only the first thing in
	the list is tested; the most common use will be with a word as input,
	naming a procedure, but a contents list is allowed so that you can
	TRACEDP [[] [VARIABLE]] or TRACEDP [[] [] [PROPLIST]].

STEP contentslist

	command.  Marks the named items for stepping.  Whenever a stepped
	procedure is invoked, each instruction line in the procedure body
	is printed before being executed, and Logo waits for the user to
	type a newline at the terminal.  A message is printed whenever a
	stepped variable name is "shadowed" because a local variable of
	the same name is created either as a procedure input or by the
	LOCAL command.

UNSTEP contentslist

	command.  Turns off stepping for the named items.

STEPPEDP contentslist
STEPPED? contentslist

	outputs TRUE if the first procedure, variable, or property list named
	in the contents list is stepped, FALSE if not.  Only the first thing
	in the list is tested; the most common use will be with a word as
	input, naming a procedure, but a contents list is allowed so that you
	can STEPPEDP [[] [VARIABLE]] or STEPPEDP [[] [] [PROPLIST]].

EDIT contentslist
ED contentslist
(EDIT)
(ED)

	command.  If invoked with an input, EDIT writes the definitions
	of the named items into a temporary file and edits that file, using
	an editor that depends on the platform you're using.  In wxWidgets,
	and in the MacOS Classic version, there is an editor built into Logo.
	In the non-wxWidgets versions for Unix, MacOS X, Windows, and DOS,
	Logo uses your favorite editor as determined by the EDITOR environment
	variable.  If you don't have an EDITOR variable, edits the
	definitions using jove.  If invoked without an input, EDIT edits
	the same file left over from a previous EDIT or EDITFILE instruction.
	When you leave the editor, Logo reads the revised definitions and
	modifies the workspace accordingly.  It is not an error if the
	input includes names for which there is no previous definition.

	If there is a variable LOADNOISILY whose value is TRUE, then, after
	leaving the editor, TO commands in the temporary file print "PROCNAME
	defined" (where PROCNAME is the name of the procedure being defined);
	if LOADNOISILY is FALSE or undefined, TO commands in the file are
	carried out silently.

	If there is an environment variable called TEMP, then Logo uses
	its value as the directory in which to write the temporary file
	used for editing.

	Exceptionally, the EDIT command can be used without its default
	input and without parentheses provided that nothing follows it on
	the instruction line.

EDITFILE filename

	command.  Starts the Logo editor, like EDIT, but instead of editing
	a temporary file it edits the file specified by the input.  When you
	leave the editor, Logo reads the revised file, as for EDIT.
	EDITFILE also remembers the filename, so that a subsequent EDIT
	command with no input will re-edit the same file.

	EDITFILE is intended as an alternative to LOAD and SAVE.  You can
	maintain a workspace file yourself, controlling the order in which
	definitions appear, maintaining comments in the file, and so on.

EDALL							(library procedure)

	command.  Abbreviates EDIT CONTENTS.

EDPS							(library procedure)

	command.  Abbreviates EDIT PROCEDURES.

EDNS							(library procedure)

	command.  Abbreviates EDIT NAMES.

EDPLS							(library procedure)

	command.  Abbreviates EDIT PLISTS.

EDN varname						(library procedure)
EDN varnamelist

	command.  Abbreviates EDIT NAMELIST varname(list).

EDPL plname						(library procedure)
EDPL plnamelist

	command.  Abbreviates EDIT PLLIST plname(list).

SAVE filename

	command.  Saves the definitions of all unburied procedures,
	variables, and nonempty property lists in the named file.
	Equivalent to

			to save :filename
			local "oldwriter
			make "oldwriter writer
			openwrite :filename
			setwrite :filename
			poall
			setwrite :oldwriter
			close :filename
			end

	Exceptionally, SAVE can be used with no input and without parentheses
	if it is the last thing on the command line.  In this case, the
	filename from the most recent LOAD or SAVE command will be used.  (It
	is an error if there has been no previous LOAD or SAVE.)

SAVEL contentslist filename				(library procedure)

	command.  Saves the definitions of the procedures, variables, and
	property lists specified by "contentslist" to the file named
	"filename".

LOAD filename

	command.  Reads instructions from the named file and executes
	them.  The file can include procedure definitions with TO, and
	these are accepted even if a procedure by the same name already
	exists.  If the file assigns a list value to a variable named
	STARTUP, then that list is run as an instructionlist after the
	file is loaded.  If there is a variable LOADNOISILY whose value
	is TRUE, then TO commands in the file print "PROCNAME defined"
	(where PROCNAME is the name of the procedure being defined); if
	LOADNOISILY is FALSE or undefined, TO commands in the file are
	carried out silently.

CSLSLOAD name

	command.  Loads the named file, like LOAD, but from the directory
	containing the Computer Science Logo Style programs instead of the
	current user's directory.

HELP name
(HELP)

	command.  Prints information from the reference manual about
	the primitive procedure named by the input.  With no input,
	lists all the primitives about which help is available.
	If there is an environment variable LOGOHELP, then its value
	is taken as the directory in which to look for help files,
	instead of the default help directory.

	If HELP is called with the name of a defined procedure for which there
	is no help file, it will print the title line of the procedure
	followed by lines from the procedure body that start with semicolon,
	stopping when a non-semicolon line is seen.

	Exceptionally, the HELP command can be used without its default
	input and without parentheses provided that nothing follows it on
	the instruction line.

SETEDITOR path

	command.  Tells Logo to use the specified program as its editor
	instead of the default editor.  The format of a path depends on your
	operating system.

SETLIBLOC path

	command.  Tells Logo to use the specified directory as its library
	instead of the default.  (Note that many Logo "primitive" procedures
	are actually found in the library, so they may become unavailable if
	your new library does not include them!)  The format of a path depends
	on your operating system.

SETHELPLOC path

	command.  Tells Logo to look in the specified directory for the
	information provided by the HELP command, instead of the default
	directory.  The format of a path depends on your operating system.

SETCSLSLOC path

	command.  Tells Logo to use the specified directory for the CSLSLOAD
	command, instead of the default directory.  The format of a path
	depends on your operating system.

SETTEMPLOC path

	command.  Tells Logo to write editor temporary files in the specified
	directory rather than in the default directory.  You must have write
	permission for this directory.  The format of a path depends on your
	operating system.

GC
(GC anything)

	command.  Runs the garbage collector, reclaiming unused nodes.  Logo
	does this when necessary anyway, but you may want to use this
	command to control exactly when Logo does it.  In particular, the
	numbers output by the NODES operation will not be very meaningful
	unless garbage has been collected.  Another reason to use GC is that
	a garbage collection takes a noticeable fraction of a second, and you
	may want to schedule collections for times before or after some
	time-critical animation.  If invoked with an input (of any value),
	GC runs a full garbage collection, including GCTWA (Garbage Collect
	Truly Worthless Atoms, which means that it removes from Logo's
	memory words that used to be procedure or variable names but aren't
	any more); without an input, GC does a generational garbage
	collection, which means that only recently created nodes are
	examined.  (The latter is usually good enough.)

.SETSEGMENTSIZE num

	command.  Sets the number of nodes that Logo allocates from the
	operating system at once to num, which must be a positive integer.
	The name is dotted because bad things will happen if you use a
	number that's too small or too large for your computer.  The
	initial value is 16,000 for most systems, but is smaller for
	68000-based Macs.  Making it larger will speed up computations
	(by reducing the number of garbage collections) at the cost of
	allocating more memory than necessary.


CONTROL STRUCTURES
==================

Note: in the following descriptions, an "instructionlist" can be a list
or a word.  In the latter case, the word is parsed into list form before
it is run.  Thus, RUN READWORD or RUN READLIST will work.  The former is
slightly preferable because it allows for a continued line (with ~) that
includes a comment (with ;) on the first line.

A "tf" input must be the word TRUE, the word FALSE, or a list.  If it's a
list, then it must be a Logo expression, which will be evaluated to produce
a value that must be TRUE or FALSE.  The comparisons with TRUE and FALSE
are always case-insensitive.

A runlist can consist of either a single expression (that produces a value)
or zero or more instructions (that do something, rather than output a value),
depending on the context:

	PRINT IFELSE :X<0 ["NEGATIVE] ["POSITIVE]  ; one value in each case
	REPEAT 4 [PRINT "A PRINT "B]  ; two instructions


RUN instructionlist

	command or operation.  Runs the Logo instructions in the input
	list; outputs if the list contains an expression that outputs.

RUNRESULT instructionlist

	runs the instructions in the input; outputs an empty list if
	those instructions produce no output, or a list whose only
	member is the output from running the input instructionlist.
	Useful for inventing command-or-operation control structures:

		local "result
		make "result runresult [something]
		if emptyp :result [stop]
		output first :result

REPEAT num instructionlist

	command.  Runs the "instructionlist" repeatedly, "num" times.

FOREVER instructionlist

	command.  Runs the "instructionlist" repeatedly, until something
	inside the instructionlist (such as STOP or THROW) makes it stop.

REPCOUNT

	outputs the repetition count of the innermost current REPEAT or
	FOREVER, starting from 1.  If no REPEAT or FOREVER is active,
	outputs -1.

	The abbreviation # can be used for REPCOUNT unless the REPEAT is
	inside the template input to a higher order procedure such as
	FOREACH, in which case # has a different meaning.

IF tf instructionlist
(IF tf instructionlist1 instructionlist2)

	command.  If the first input has the value TRUE, then IF runs
	the second input.  If the first input has the value FALSE, then
	IF does nothing.  (If given a third input, IF acts like IFELSE,
	as described below.)  It is an error if the first input is not
	either TRUE or FALSE.

	For compatibility with earlier versions of Logo, if an IF
	instruction is not enclosed in parentheses, but the first thing
	on the instruction line after the second input expression is a
	literal list (i.e., a list in square brackets), the IF is
	treated as if it were IFELSE, but a warning message is given.
	If this aberrant IF appears in a procedure body, the warning is
	given only the first time the procedure is invoked in each Logo
	session.

IFELSE tf instructionlist1 instructionlist2

	command or operation.  If the first input has the value TRUE, then
	IFELSE runs the second input.  If the first input has the value FALSE,
	then IFELSE runs the third input.  IFELSE outputs a value if the
	instructionlist contains an expression that outputs a value.

TEST tf

	command.  Remembers its input, which must be TRUE or FALSE, for use
	by later IFTRUE or IFFALSE instructions.  The effect of TEST is local
	to the procedure in which it is used; any corresponding IFTRUE or
	IFFALSE must be in the same procedure or a subprocedure.

IFTRUE instructionlist
IFT instructionlist

	command.  Runs its input if the most recent TEST instruction had
	a TRUE input.  The TEST must have been in the same procedure or a
	superprocedure.

IFFALSE instructionlist
IFF instructionlist

	command.  Runs its input if the most recent TEST instruction had
	a FALSE input.  The TEST must have been in the same procedure or a
	superprocedure.

STOP

	command.  Ends the running of the procedure in which it appears.
	Control is returned to the context in which that procedure was
	invoked.  The stopped procedure does not output a value.

OUTPUT value
OP value

	command.  Ends the running of the procedure in which it appears.
	That procedure outputs the value "value" to the context in which
	it was invoked.  Don't be confused: OUTPUT itself is a command,
	but the procedure that invokes OUTPUT is an operation.

CATCH tag instructionlist

	command or operation.  Runs its second input.  Outputs if that
	instructionlist outputs.  If, while running the instructionlist,
	a THROW instruction is executed with a tag equal to the first
	input (case-insensitive comparison), then the running of the
	instructionlist is terminated immediately.  In this case the CATCH
	outputs if a value input is given to THROW.  The tag must be a word.

	If the tag is the word ERROR, then any error condition that arises
	during the running of the instructionlist has the effect of THROW
	"ERROR instead of printing an error message and returning to
	toplevel.  The CATCH does not output if an error is caught.  Also,
	during the running of the instructionlist, the variable ERRACT is
	temporarily unbound.  (If there is an error while ERRACT has a
	value, that value is taken as an instructionlist to be run after
	printing the error message.  Typically the value of ERRACT, if any,
	is the list [PAUSE].)

THROW tag
(THROW tag value)

	command.  Must be used within the scope of a CATCH with an equal
	tag.  Ends the running of the instructionlist of the CATCH.  If
	THROW is used with only one input, the corresponding CATCH does
	not output a value.  If THROW is used with two inputs, the second
	provides an output for the CATCH.

	THROW "TOPLEVEL can be used to terminate all running procedures and
	interactive pauses, and return to the toplevel instruction prompt.
	Typing the system interrupt character (alt-S for wxWidgets; otherwise
	normally control-C for Unix, control-Q for DOS, or command-period for
	Mac) has the same effect.

	THROW "ERROR can be used to generate an error condition.  If the
	error is not caught, it prints a message (THROW "ERROR) with the
	usual indication of where the error (in this case the THROW)
	occurred.  If a second input is used along with a tag of ERROR,
	that second input is used as the text of the error message
	instead of the standard message.  Also, in this case, the location
	indicated for the error will be, not the location of the THROW,
	but the location where the procedure containing the THROW was
	invoked.  This allows user-defined procedures to generate error
	messages as if they were primitives.  Note: in this case the
	corresponding CATCH "ERROR, if any, does not output, since the second
	input to THROW is not considered a return value.

	THROW "SYSTEM immediately leaves Logo, returning to the operating
	system, without printing the usual parting message and without
	deleting any editor temporary file written by EDIT.

ERROR

	outputs a list describing the error just caught, if any.  If there was
	not an error caught since the last use of ERROR, the empty list will
	be output.  The error list contains four members: an integer code
	corresponding to the type of error, the text of the error message (as
	a single word including spaces), the name of the procedure in which
	the error occurred, and the instruction line on which the error
	occurred.

PAUSE

	command or operation.  Enters an interactive pause.  The user is
	prompted for instructions, as at toplevel, but with a prompt that
	includes the name of the procedure in which PAUSE was invoked.
	Local variables of that procedure are available during the pause.
	PAUSE outputs if the pause is ended by a CONTINUE with an input.

	If the variable ERRACT exists, and an error condition occurs, the
	contents of that variable are run as an instructionlist.  Typically
	ERRACT is given the value [PAUSE] so that an interactive pause will
	be entered in the event of an error.  This allows the user to check
	values of local variables at the time of the error.

	Typing the system quit character (alt-S for wxWidgets; otherwise
	normally control-\ for Unix, control-W for DOS, or command-comma for
	Mac) will also enter a pause.

CONTINUE value
CO value
(CONTINUE)
(CO)

	command.  Ends the current interactive pause, returning to the
	context of the PAUSE invocation that began it.  If CONTINUE is
	given an input, that value is used as the output from the PAUSE.
	If not, the PAUSE does not output.

	Exceptionally, the CONTINUE command can be used without its default
	input and without parentheses provided that nothing follows it on
	the instruction line.

WAIT time

	command.  Delays further execution for "time" 60ths of a second.
	Also causes any buffered characters destined for the terminal to
	be printed immediately.  WAIT 0 can be used to achieve this
	buffer flushing without actually waiting.

BYE

	command.  Exits from Logo; returns to the operating system.

.MAYBEOUTPUT value					(special form)

	works like OUTPUT except that the expression that provides the
	input value might not, in fact, output a value, in which case
	the effect is like STOP.  This is intended for use in control
	structure definitions, for cases in which you don't know whether
	or not some expression produces a value.  Example:

		to invoke :function [:inputs] 2
		.maybeoutput apply :function :inputs
		end

		? (invoke "print "a "b "c)
		a b c
		? print (invoke "word "a "b "c)
		abc

	This is an alternative to RUNRESULT.  It's fast and easy to use,
	at the cost of being an exception to Logo's evaluation rules.
	(Ordinarily, it should be an error if the expression that's
	supposed to provide an input to something doesn't have a value.)

GOTO word

	command.  Looks for a TAG command with the same input in the same
	procedure, and continues running the procedure from the location of
	that TAG.  It is meaningless to use GOTO outside of a procedure.

TAG quoted.word

	command.  Does nothing.  The input must be a literal word following
	a quotation mark ("), not the result of a computation.  Tags are
	used by the GOTO command.

IGNORE value						(library procedure)

	command.  Does nothing.  Used when an expression is evaluated for
	a side effect and its actual value is unimportant.

` list							(library procedure)

	outputs a list equal to its input but with certain substitutions.
	If a member of the input list is the word "," (comma) then the
	following member should be an instructionlist that produces an
	output when run.  That output value replaces the comma and the
	instructionlist.  If a member of the input list is the word ",@"
	(comma atsign) then the following member should be an instructionlist
	that outputs a list when run.  The members of that list replace the
	,@ and the instructionlist.  Example:

		show `[foo baz ,[bf [a b c]] garply ,@[bf [a b c]]]

	will print

		[foo baz [b c] garply b c]

	A word starting with , or ,@ is treated as if the rest of the word
	were a one-word list, e.g., ,:FOO is equivalent to ,[:FOO].

	A word starting with ", (quote comma) or :, (colon comma) becomes a
	word starting with " or : but with the result of running the
	substitution (or its first word, if the result is a list) replacing
	what comes after the comma.

	Backquotes can be nested.  Substitution is done only for commas at
	the same depth as the backquote in which they are found:

		? show `[a `[b ,[1+2] ,[foo ,[1+3] d] e] f]
		[a ` [b , [1+2] , [foo 4 d] e] f]

		?make "name1 "x
		?make "name2 "y
		? show `[a `[b ,:,:name1 ,",:name2 d] e]
		[a ` [b , [:x] , ["y] d] e]

FOR forcontrol instructionlist				(library procedure)

	command.  The first input must be a list containing three or four
	members: (1) a word, which will be used as the name of a local
	variable; (2) a word or list that will be evaluated as by RUN to
	determine a number, the starting value of the variable; (3) a word
	or list that will be evaluated to determine a number, the limit value
	of the variable; (4) an optional word or list that will be evaluated
	to determine the step size.  If the fourth member is missing, the
	step size will be 1 or -1 depending on whether the limit value is
	greater than or less than the starting value, respectively.

	The second input is an instructionlist.  The effect of FOR is to run
	that instructionlist repeatedly, assigning a new value to the control
	variable (the one named by the first member of the forcontrol list)
	each time.  First the starting value is assigned to the control
	variable.  Then the value is compared to the limit value.  FOR is
	complete when the sign of (current - limit) is the same as the sign
	of the step size.  (If no explicit step size is provided, the
	instructionlist is always run at least once.  An explicit step size
	can lead to a zero-trip FOR, e.g., FOR [I 1 0 1] ...)  Otherwise, the
	instructionlist is run, then the step is added to the current value
	of the control variable and FOR returns to the comparison step.

		? for [i 2 7 1.5] [print :i]
		2
		3.5
		5
		6.5
		?

DO.WHILE instructionlist tfexpression			(library procedure)

	command.  Repeatedly evaluates the "instructionlist" as long as the
	evaluated "tfexpression" remains TRUE.  Evaluates the first input
	first, so the "instructionlist" is always run at least once.  The
	"tfexpression" must be an expressionlist whose value when evaluated
	is TRUE or FALSE.

WHILE tfexpression instructionlist			(library procedure)

	command.  Repeatedly evaluates the "instructionlist" as long as the
	evaluated "tfexpression" remains TRUE.  Evaluates the first input
	first, so the "instructionlist" may never be run at all.  The
	"tfexpression" must be an expressionlist whose value when evaluated
	is TRUE or FALSE.

DO.UNTIL instructionlist tfexpression			(library procedure)

	command.  Repeatedly evaluates the "instructionlist" as long as the
	evaluated "tfexpression" remains FALSE.  Evaluates the first input
	first, so the "instructionlist" is always run at least once.  The
	"tfexpression" must be an expressionlist whose value when evaluated
	is TRUE or FALSE.

UNTIL tfexpression instructionlist			(library procedure)

	command.  Repeatedly evaluates the "instructionlist" as long as the
	evaluated "tfexpression" remains FALSE.  Evaluates the first input
	first, so the "instructionlist" may never be run at all.  The
	"tfexpression" must be an expressionlist whose value when evaluated
	is TRUE or FALSE.

CASE value clauses					(library procedure)

	command or operation.  The second input is a list of lists (clauses);
	each clause is a list whose first element is either a list of values
	or the word ELSE and whose butfirst is a Logo expression or
	instruction.  CASE examines the clauses in order.  If a clause begins
	with the word ELSE (upper or lower case), then the butfirst of that
	clause is evaluated and CASE outputs its value, if any.  If the first
	input to CASE is a member of the first element of a clause, then the
	butfirst of that clause is evaluated and CASE outputs its value, if
	any.  If neither of these conditions is met, then CASE goes on to the
	next clause.  If no clause is satisfied, CASE does nothing.  Example:

		to vowelp :letter
		output case :letter [ [[a e i o u] "true] [else "false] ]
		end

COND clauses						(library procedure)

	command or operation.  The input is a list of lists (clauses); each
	clause is a list whose first element is either an expression whose
	value is TRUE or FALSE, or the word ELSE, and whose butfirst is a Logo
	expression or instruction.  COND examines the clauses in order.  If a
	clause begins with the word ELSE (upper or lower case), then the
	butfirst of that clause is evaluated and CASE outputs its value, if
	any.  Otherwise, the first element of the clause is evaluated; the
	resulting value must be TRUE or FALSE.  If it's TRUE, then the
	butfirst of that clause is evaluated and COND outputs its value, if
	any.  If the value is FALSE, then COND goes on to the next clause.  If
	no clause is satisfied, COND does nothing.  Example:

		to evens :numbers	; select even numbers from a list
		op cond [ [[emptyp :numbers] []]
		          [[evenp first :numbers]  ; assuming EVENP is defined
		           fput first :numbers evens butfirst :numbers]
		          [else evens butfirst :numbers] ]
		end


TEMPLATE-BASED ITERATION
------------------------

The procedures in this section are iteration tools based on the idea of a
"template."  This is a generalization of an instruction list or an
expression list in which "slots" are provided for the tool to insert varying
data.  Four different forms of template can be used.

The most commonly used form for a template is "explicit-slot" form, or
"question mark" form.  Example:

	? show map [? * ?] [2 3 4 5]
	[4 9 16 25]
	?

In this example, the MAP tool evaluated the template [? * ?] repeatedly,
with each of the members of the data list [2 3 4 5] substituted in turn
for the question marks.  The same value was used for every question mark
in a given evaluation.  Some tools allow for more than one datum to be
substituted in parallel; in these cases the slots are indicated by ?1 for
the first datum, ?2 for the second, and so on:

	? show (map [(word ?1 ?2 ?1)] [a b c] [d e f])
	[ada beb cfc]
	?

If the template wishes to compute the datum number, the form (? 1) is
equivalent to ?1, so (? ?1) means the datum whose number is given in
datum number 1.  Some tools allow additional slot designations, as shown
in the individual descriptions.

The second form of template is the "named-procedure" form.  If the template
is a word rather than a list, it is taken as the name of a procedure.  That
procedure must accept a number of inputs equal to the number of parallel
data slots provided by the tool; the procedure is applied to all of the
available data in order.  That is, if data ?1 through ?3 are available,
the template "PROC is equivalent to [PROC ?1 ?2 ?3].

	? show (map "word [a b c] [d e f])
	[ad be cf]
	?

	to dotprod :a :b	; vector dot product
	op apply "sum (map "product :a :b)
	end

The third form of template is "named-slot" or "lambda" form.  This form is
indicated by a template list containing more than one member, whose first
member is itself a list.  The first member is taken as a list of names;
local variables are created with those names and given the available data
in order as their values.  The number of names must equal the number of
available data.  This form is needed primarily when one iteration tool must
be used within the template list of another, and the ? notation would be
ambiguous in the inner template.  Example:

	to matmul :m1 :m2 [:tm2 transpose :m2]	; multiply two matrices
	output map [[row] map [[col] dotprod :row :col] :tm2] :m1
	end

The fourth form is "procedure text" form, a variant of lambda form.  In this
form, the template list contains at least two members, all of which are
lists.  This is the form used by the DEFINE and TEXT primitives, and APPLY
accepts it so that the text of a defined procedure can be used as a template.

Note:  The fourth form of template is interpreted differently from the
others, in that Logo considers it to be an independent defined procedure
for the purposes of OUTPUT and STOP.  For example, the following two
instructions are identical:

	? print apply [[x] :x+3] [5]
	8
	? print apply [[x] [output :x+3]] [5]
	8

although the first instruction is in named-slot form and the second is
in procedure-text form.  The named-slot form can be understood as telling
Logo to evaluate the expression :x+3 in place of the entire invocation of
apply, with the variable x temporarily given the value 5.  The procedure-text
form can be understood as invoking the procedure

	to foo :x
	output :x+3
	end

with input 5, but without actually giving the procedure a name.  If
the use of OUTPUT were interchanged in these two examples, we'd get errors:

	? print apply [[x] output :x+3] [5]
	Can only use output inside a procedure
	? print apply [[x] [:x+3]] [5]
	You don't say what to do with 8

The named-slot form can be used with STOP or OUTPUT inside a procedure,
to stop the enclosing procedure.


The following iteration tools are extended versions of the ones in Appendix
B of the book _Computer_Science_Logo_Style,_Volume_3:_Advanced_Topics_ by
Brian Harvey [MIT Press, 1987].  The extensions are primarily to allow for
variable numbers of inputs.


APPLY template inputlist

	command or operation.  Runs the "template," filling its slots with
	the members of "inputlist."  The number of members in "inputlist"
	must be an acceptable number of slots for "template."  It is
	illegal to apply the primitive TO as a template, but anything else
	is okay.  APPLY outputs what "template" outputs, if anything.

INVOKE template input					(library procedure)
(INVOKE template input1 input2 ...)

	command or operation.  Exactly like APPLY except that the inputs
	are provided as separate expressions rather than in a list.

FOREACH data template					(library procedure)
(FOREACH data1 data2 ... template)

	command.  Evaluates the template list repeatedly, once for each
	member of the data list.  If more than one data list are given,
	each of them must be the same length.  (The data inputs can be
	words, in which case the template is evaluated once for each
	character.)

	In a template, the symbol ?REST represents the portion of the
	data input to the right of the member currently being used as
	the ? slot-filler.  That is, if the data input is [A B C D E]
	and the template is being evaluated with ? replaced by B, then
	?REST would be replaced by [C D E].  If multiple parallel slots
	are used, then (?REST 1) goes with ?1, etc.

	In a template, the symbol # represents the position in the data
	input of the member currently being used as the ? slot-filler.
	That is, if the data input is [A B C D E] and the template is
	being evaluated with ? replaced by B, then # would be replaced
	by 2.

MAP template data					(library procedure)
(MAP template data1 data2 ...)

	outputs a word or list, depending on the type of the data input,
	of the same length as that data input.  (If more than one data
	input are given, the output is of the same type as data1.)  Each
	member of the output is the result of evaluating the template
	list, filling the slots with the corresponding member(s) of the
	data input(s).  (All data inputs must be the same length.)  In the
	case of a word output, the results of the template evaluation must
	be words, and they are concatenated with WORD.

	In a template, the symbol ?REST represents the portion of the
	data input to the right of the member currently being used as
	the ? slot-filler.  That is, if the data input is [A B C D E]
	and the template is being evaluated with ? replaced by B, then
	?REST would be replaced by [C D E].  If multiple parallel slots
	are used, then (?REST 1) goes with ?1, etc.

	In a template, the symbol # represents the position in the data
	input of the member currently being used as the ? slot-filler.
	That is, if the data input is [A B C D E] and the template is
	being evaluated with ? replaced by B, then # would be replaced
	by 2.

MAP.SE template data					(library procedure)
(MAP.SE template data1 data2 ...)

	outputs a list formed by evaluating the template list repeatedly
	and concatenating the results using SENTENCE.  That is, the
	members of the output are the members of the results of the
	evaluations.  The output list might, therefore, be of a different
	length from that of the data input(s).  (If the result of an
	evaluation is the empty list, it contributes nothing to the final
	output.)  The data inputs may be words or lists.

	In a template, the symbol ?REST represents the portion of the
	data input to the right of the member currently being used as
	the ? slot-filler.  That is, if the data input is [A B C D E]
	and the template is being evaluated with ? replaced by B, then
	?REST would be replaced by [C D E].  If multiple parallel slots
	are used, then (?REST 1) goes with ?1, etc.

	In a template, the symbol # represents the position in the data
	input of the member currently being used as the ? slot-filler.
	That is, if the data input is [A B C D E] and the template is
	being evaluated with ? replaced by B, then # would be replaced
	by 2.

FILTER tftemplate data					(library procedure)

	outputs a word or list, depending on the type of the data input,
	containing a subset of the members (for a list) or characters (for
	a word) of the input.  The template is evaluated once for each
	member or character of the data, and it must produce a TRUE or
	FALSE value.  If the value is TRUE, then the corresponding input
	constituent is included in the output.

		? print filter "vowelp "elephant
		eea
		?

	In a template, the symbol ?REST represents the portion of the
	data input to the right of the member currently being used as
	the ? slot-filler.  That is, if the data input is [A B C D E]
	and the template is being evaluated with ? replaced by B, then
	?REST would be replaced by [C D E].

	In a template, the symbol # represents the position in the data
	input of the member currently being used as the ? slot-filler.
	That is, if the data input is [A B C D E] and the template is
	being evaluated with ? replaced by B, then # would be replaced
	by 2.

FIND tftemplate data					(library procedure)

	outputs the first constituent of the data input (the first member
	of a list, or the first character of a word) for which the value
	produced by evaluating the template with that consituent in its
	slot is TRUE.  If there is no such constituent, the empty list
	is output.

	In a template, the symbol ?REST represents the portion of the
	data input to the right of the member currently being used as
	the ? slot-filler.  That is, if the data input is [A B C D E]
	and the template is being evaluated with ? replaced by B, then
	?REST would be replaced by [C D E].

	In a template, the symbol # represents the position in the data
	input of the member currently being used as the ? slot-filler.
	That is, if the data input is [A B C D E] and the template is
	being evaluated with ? replaced by B, then # would be replaced
	by 2.

REDUCE template data					(library procedure)

	outputs the result of applying the template to accumulate the
	members of the data input.  The template must be a two-slot
	function.  Typically it is an associative function name like SUM.
	If the data input has only one constituent (member in a list or
	character in a word), the output is that consituent.  Otherwise,
	the template is first applied with ?1 filled with the next-to-last
	consitient and ?2 with the last constituent.  Then, if there are
	more constituents, the template is applied with ?1 filled with the
	next constituent to the left and ?2 with the result from the
	previous evaluation.  This process continues until all constituents
	have been used.  The data input may not be empty.

	Note: If the template is, like SUM, the name of a procedure that is
	capable of accepting arbitrarily many inputs, it is more efficient
	to use APPLY instead of REDUCE.  The latter is good for associative
	procedures that have been written to accept exactly two inputs:

		to max :a :b
		output ifelse :a > :b [:a] [:b]
		end

		print reduce "max [...]

	Alternatively, REDUCE can be used to write MAX as a procedure
	that accepts any number of inputs, as SUM does:

		to max [:inputs] 2
		if emptyp :inputs ~
		   [(throw "error [not enough inputs to max])]
		output reduce [ifelse ?1 > ?2 [?1] [?2]] :inputs
		end

CROSSMAP template listlist				(library procedure)
(CROSSMAP template data1 data2 ...)

	outputs a list containing the results of template evaluations.
	Each data list contributes to a slot in the template; the number
	of slots is equal to the number of data list inputs.  As a special
	case, if only one data list input is given, that list is taken as
	a list of data lists, and each of its members contributes values
	to a slot.  CROSSMAP differs from MAP in that instead of taking
	members from the data inputs in parallel, it takes all possible
	combinations of members of data inputs, which need not be the same
	length.

		? show (crossmap [word ?1 ?2] [a b c] [1 2 3 4])
		[a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 b3 b4 c1 c2 c3 c4]
		?

	For compatibility with the version in the first edition of CSLS,
	CROSSMAP templates may use the notation :1 instead of ?1 to indicate
	slots.

CASCADE endtest template startvalue			(library procedure)
(CASCADE endtest tmp1 sv1 tmp2 sv2 ...)
(CASCADE endtest tmp1 sv1 tmp2 sv2 ... finaltemplate)

	outputs the result of applying a template (or several templates,
	as explained below) repeatedly, with a given value filling the
	slot the first time, and the result of each application filling
	the slot for the following application.

	In the simplest case, CASCADE has three inputs.  The second input
	is a one-slot expression template.  That template is evaluated
	some number of times (perhaps zero).  On the first evaluation,
	the slot is filled with the third input; on subsequent evaluations,
	the slot is filled with the result of the previous evaluation.
	The number of evaluations is determined by the first input.  This
	can be either a nonnegative integer, in which case the template is
	evaluated that many times, or a predicate expression template, in
	which case it is evaluated (with the same slot filler that will be
	used for the evaluation of the second input) repeatedly, and the
	CASCADE evaluation continues as long as the predicate value is
	FALSE.  (In other words, the predicate template indicates the
	condition for stopping.)

	If the template is evaluated zero times, the output from CASCADE
	is the third (startvalue) input.  Otherwise, the output is the
	value produced by the last template evaluation.

	CASCADE templates may include the symbol # to represent the number
	of times the template has been evaluated.  This slot is filled with
	1 for the first evaluation, 2 for the second, and so on.

		? show cascade 5 [lput # ?] []
		[1 2 3 4 5]
		? show cascade [vowelp first ?] [bf ?] "spring
		ing
		? show cascade 5 [# * ?] 1
		120
		?

	Several cascaded results can be computed in parallel by providing
	additional template-startvalue pairs as inputs to CASCADE.  In this
	case, all templates (including the endtest template, if used) are
	multi-slot, with the number of slots equal to the number of pairs of
	inputs.  In each round of evaluations, ?2, for example, represents the
	result of evaluating the second template in the previous round.  If
	the total number of inputs (including the first endtest input) is odd,
	then the output from CASCADE is the final value of the first template.
	If the total number of inputs is even, then the last input is a
	template that is evaluated once, after the end test is satisfied, to
	determine the output from CASCADE.

		to fibonacci :n
		output (cascade :n [?1 + ?2] 1 [?1] 0)
		end

		to piglatin :word
		output (cascade [vowelp first ?] ~
				[word bf ? first ?] ~
				:word ~
				[word ? "ay])
		end

CASCADE.2 endtest temp1 startval1 temp2 startval2	(library procedure)

	outputs the result of invoking CASCADE with the same inputs.
	The only difference is that the default number of inputs is
	five instead of three.

TRANSFER endtest template inbasket			(library procedure)

	outputs the result of repeated evaluation of the template.
	The template is evaluated once for each member of the list
	"inbasket."  TRANSFER maintains an "outbasket" that is
	initially the empty list.  After each evaluation of the
	template, the resulting value becomes the new outbasket.

	In the template, the symbol ?IN represents the current member
	from the inbasket; the symbol ?OUT represents the entire
	current outbasket.  Other slot symbols should not be used.

	If the first (endtest) input is an empty list, evaluation
	continues until all inbasket members have been used.  If not,
	the first input must be a predicate expression template, and
	evaluation continues until either that template's value is TRUE
	or the inbasket is used up.


MACROS
======

.MACRO procname :input1 :input2 ...				(special form)
.DEFMACRO procname text

	A macro is a special kind of procedure whose output is evaluated
	as Logo instructions in the context of the macro's caller.
	.MACRO is exactly like TO except that the new procedure becomes
	a macro; .DEFMACRO is exactly like DEFINE with the same exception.

	Macros are useful for inventing new control structures comparable
	to REPEAT, IF, and so on.  Such control structures can almost, but
	not quite, be duplicated by ordinary Logo procedures.  For example,
	here is an ordinary procedure version of REPEAT:

		to my.repeat :num :instructions
		if :num=0 [stop]
		run :instructions
		my.repeat :num-1 :instructions
		end

	This version works fine for most purposes, e.g.,

		my.repeat 5 [print "hello]

	But it doesn't work if the instructions to be carried out include
	OUTPUT, STOP, or LOCAL.  For example, consider this procedure:

		to example
		print [Guess my secret word.  You get three guesses.]
		repeat 3 [type "|?? | ~
			  if readword = "secret [pr "Right! stop]]
		print [Sorry, the word was "secret"!]
		end

	This procedure works as written, but if MY.REPEAT is used instead
	of REPEAT, it won't work because the STOP will stop MY.REPEAT
	instead of stopping EXAMPLE as desired.

	The solution is to make MY.REPEAT a macro.  Instead of actually
	carrying out the computation, a macro must return a list containing
	Logo instructions.  The contents of that list are evaluated as if
	they appeared in place of the call to the macro.  Here's a macro
	version of REPEAT:

		.macro my.repeat :num :instructions
		if :num=0 [output []]
		output sentence :instructions ~
				(list "my.repeat :num-1 :instructions)
		end

	Every macro is an operation -- it must always output something.
	Even in the base case, MY.REPEAT outputs an empty instruction
	list.  To show how MY.REPEAT works, let's take the example

		my.repeat 5 [print "hello]

	For this example, MY.REPEAT will output the instruction list

		[print "hello my.repeat 4 [print "hello]]

	Logo then executes these instructions in place of the original
	invocation of MY.REPEAT; this prints "hello" once and invokes
	another repetition.

	The technique just shown, although fairly easy to understand,
	has the defect of slowness because each repetition has to
	construct an instruction list for evaluation.  Another approach
	is to make MY.REPEAT a macro that works just like the non-macro
	version unless the instructions to be repeated include OUTPUT
	or STOP:

		.macro my.repeat :num :instructions
		catch "repeat.catchtag ~
		      [op repeat.done runresult [repeat1 :num :instructions]]
		op []
		end

		to repeat1 :num :instructions
		if :num=0 [throw "repeat.catchtag]
		run :instructions
		.maybeoutput repeat1 :num-1 :instructions
		end

		to repeat.done :repeat.result
		if emptyp :repeat.result [op [stop]]
		op list "output quoted first :repeat.result
		end

	If the instructions do not include STOP or OUTPUT, then REPEAT1 will
	reach its base case and invoke THROW.  As a result, MY.REPEAT's last
	instruction line will output an empty list, so the evaluation of the
	macro result by the caller will do nothing.  But if a STOP or OUTPUT
	happens, then REPEAT.DONE will output a STOP or OUTPUT instruction
	that will be executed in the caller's context.

	The macro-defining commands have names starting with a dot because
	macros are an advanced feature of Logo; it's easy to get in trouble
	by defining a macro that doesn't terminate, or by failing to
	construct the instruction list properly.

	Lisp users should note that Logo macros are NOT special forms.
	That is, the inputs to the macro are evaluated normally, as they
	would be for any other Logo procedure.  It's only the output from
	the macro that's handled unusually.

	Here's another example:

		.macro localmake :name :value
		output (list "local		~
			     word "" :name	~
			     "apply		~
			     ""make		~
			     (list :name :value))
		end

	It's used this way:

		to try
		localmake "garply "hello
		print :garply
		end

	LOCALMAKE outputs the list

		[local "garply apply "make [garply hello]]

	The reason for the use of APPLY is to avoid having to decide
	whether or not the second input to MAKE requires a quotation
	mark before it.  (In this case it would -- MAKE "GARPLY "HELLO --
	but the quotation mark would be wrong if the value were a list.)

	It's often convenient to use the ` function to construct the
	instruction list:

		.macro localmake :name :value
		op `[local ,[word "" :name] apply "make [,[:name] ,[:value]]]
		end

	On the other hand, ` is pretty slow, since it's tree recursive and
	written in Logo.

MACROP name
MACRO? name

	outputs TRUE if its input is the name of a macro.

MACROEXPAND expr					(library procedure)

	takes as its input a Logo expression that invokes a macro (that is,
	one that begins with the name of a macro) and outputs the the Logo
	expression into which the macro would translate the input expression.


		.macro localmake :name :value
		op `[local ,[word "" :name] apply "make [,[:name] ,[:value]]]
		end

		? show macroexpand [localmake "pi 3.14159]
		[local "pi apply "make [pi 3.14159]]


ERROR PROCESSING
================

If an error occurs, Logo takes the following steps.  First, if there is
an available variable named ERRACT, Logo takes its value as an instructionlist
and runs the instructions.  The operation ERROR may be used within the
instructions (once) to examine the error condition.  If the instructionlist
invokes PAUSE, the error message is printed before the pause happens.
Certain errors are "recoverable"; for one of those errors, if the
instructionlist outputs a value, that value is used in place of the
expression that caused the error.  (If ERRACT invokes PAUSE and the user then
invokes CONTINUE with an input, that input becomes the output from PAUSE and
therefore the output from the ERRACT instructionlist.)

It is possible for an ERRACT instructionlist to produce an inappropriate value
or no value where one is needed.  As a result, the same error condition could
recur forever because of this mechanism.  To avoid that danger, if the same
error condition occurs twice in a row from an ERRACT instructionlist without
user interaction, the message "Erract loop" is printed and control returns
to toplevel.  "Without user interaction" means that if ERRACT invokes PAUSE and
the user provides an incorrect value, this loop prevention mechanism does not
take effect and the user gets to try again.

During the running of the ERRACT instructionlist, ERRACT is locally unbound,
so an error in the ERRACT instructions themselves will not cause a loop.  In
particular, an error during a pause will not cause a pause-within-a-pause
unless the user reassigns the value [PAUSE] to ERRACT during the pause.  But
such an error will not return to toplevel; it will remain within the original
pause loop.

If there is no available ERRACT value, Logo handles the error by generating
an internal THROW "ERROR.  (A user program can also generate an error
condition deliberately by invoking THROW.)  If this throw is not caught by
a CATCH "ERROR in the user program, it is eventually caught either by the
toplevel instruction loop or by a pause loop, which prints the error message.
An invocation of CATCH "ERROR in a user program locally unbinds ERRACT, so
the effect is that whichever of ERRACT and CATCH "ERROR is more local will
take precedence.

If a floating point overflow occurs during an arithmetic operation, or a
two-input mathematical function (like POWER) is invoked with an illegal
combination of inputs, the "doesn't like" message refers to the second
operand, but should be taken as meaning the combination.


ERROR CODES
-----------

Here are the numeric codes that appear as the first member of the list
output by ERROR when an error is caught, with the corresponding messages.
Some messages may have two different codes depending on whether or not
the error is recoverable (that is, a substitute value can be provided
through the ERRACT mechanism) in the specific context.  Some messages are
warnings rather than errors; these will not be caught.  Errors 0 and 32 are
so bad that Logo exits immediately.

  0	Fatal internal error (can't be caught)
  1	Out of memory
  2	Stack overflow
  3	Turtle out of bounds
  4	PROC doesn't like DATUM as input (not recoverable)
  5	PROC didn't output to PROC
  6	Not enough inputs to PROC
  7	PROC doesn't like DATUM as input (recoverable)
  8	Too much inside ()'s
  9	You don't say what to do with DATUM
 10	')' not found
 11	VAR has no value
 12	Unexpected ')'
 13	I don't know how to PROC (recoverable)
 14	Can't find catch tag for THROWTAG
 15	PROC is already defined
 16	Stopped
 17	Already dribbling
 18	File system error
 19	Assuming you mean IFELSE, not IF (warning only)
 20	VAR shadowed by local in procedure call (warning only)
 21	Throw "Error
 22	PROC is a primitive
 23	Can't use TO inside a procedure
 24	I don't know how to PROC (not recoverable)
 25	IFTRUE/IFFALSE without TEST
 26	Unexpected ']'
 27	Unexpected '}'
 28	Couldn't initialize graphics
 29	Macro returned VALUE instead of a list
 30	You don't say what to do with VALUE
 31	Can only use STOP or OUTPUT inside a procedure
 32	APPLY doesn't like BADTHING as input
 33	END inside multi-line instruction
 34	Really out of memory (can't be caught)
 35	user-generated error message (THROW "ERROR [message])
 36	END inside multi-line instruction
 37	Bad default expression for optional input: EXPR
 38	Can't use OUTPUT or STOP inside RUNRESULT
 39 	Assuming you meant 'FD 100', not FD100 (or similar)
 40	I can't open file FILENAME
 41	File FILENAME already open
 42	File FILENAME not open
 43	Runlist [EXPR EXPR] has more than one expression.


SPECIAL VARIABLES
=================

Logo takes special action if any of the following variable names exists.
They follow the normal scoping rules, so a procedure can locally set one of
them to limit the scope of its effect.  Initially, no variables exist except
for ALLOWGETSET, CASEIGNOREDP, and UNBURYONEDIT, which are TRUE and buried.

ALLOWGETSET						(variable)

	if TRUE, indicates that an attempt to use a procedure that doesn't
	exist should be taken as an implicit getter or setter procedure
	(setter if the first three letters of the name are SET) for a variable
	of the same name (without the SET if appropriate).

BUTTONACT						(variable)

	if nonempty, should be an instruction list that will be evaluated
	whenever a mouse button is pressed.  Note that the user may have
	released the button before the instructions are evaluated.  BUTTON
	will still output which button was most recently pressed.  CLICKPOS
	will output the position of the mouse cursor at the moment the
	button was pressed; this may be different from MOUSEPOS if the
	user moves the mouse after clicking.

	Note that it's possible for the user to press a button during the
	evaluation of the instruction list.  If this would confuse your
	program, prevent it by temporarily setting BUTTONACT to the empty
	list.  One easy way to do that is the following:

		make "buttonact [button.action]

		to button.action [:buttonact []]
		... ; whatever you want the button to do
		end

CASEIGNOREDP						(variable)

	if TRUE, indicates that lower case and upper case letters should be
	considered equal by EQUALP, BEFOREP, MEMBERP, etc.  Logo initially
	makes this variable TRUE, and buries it.

COMMANDLINE						(variable)

	contains any text appearing after a hyphen on the command line
	used to start Logo.

ERRACT							(variable)

	an instructionlist that will be run in the event of an error.
	Typically has the value [PAUSE] to allow interactive debugging.

FULLPRINTP						(variable)

	if TRUE, then words that were created using backslash or vertical bar
	(to include characters that would otherwise not be treated as part of
	a word) are printed with the backslashes or vertical bars shown, so
	that the printed result could be re-read by Logo to produce the same
	value.  If FULLPRINTP is TRUE then the empty word (however it was
	created) prints as ||.  (Otherwise it prints as nothing at all.)

KEYACT							(variable)

	if nonempty, should be an instruction list that will be evaluated
	whenever a key is pressed on the keyboard.  The instruction list
	can use READCHAR to find out what key was pressed.  Note that only
	keys that produce characters qualify; pressing SHIFT or CONTROL
	alone will not cause KEYACT to be evaluated.

	Note that it's possible for the user to press a key during the
	evaluation of the instruction list.  If this would confuse your
	program, prevent it by temporarily setting KEYACT to the empty
	list.  One easy way to do that is the following:

		make "keyact [key.action]

		to key.action [:keyact []]
		... ; whatever you want the key to do
		end

LOADNOISILY						(variable)

	if TRUE, prints the names of procedures defined when loading
	from a file (including the temporary file made by EDIT).

PRINTDEPTHLIMIT						(variable)

	if a nonnegative integer, indicates the maximum depth of sublist
	structure that will be printed by PRINT, etc.

PRINTWIDTHLIMIT						(variable)

	if a nonnegative integer, indicates the maximum number of members
	in any one list that will be printed by PRINT, etc.

REDEFP							(variable)

	if TRUE, allows primitives to be erased (ERASE) or redefined (COPYDEF).

STARTUP							(variable)

	if assigned a list value in a file loaded by LOAD, that value is
	run as an instructionlist after the loading.

UNBURYONEDIT						(variable)

	if TRUE, causes any procedure defined during EDIT or LOAD to be
	unburied, so that it will be saved by a later SAVE.  Files that
	want to define and bury procedures must do it in that order.

USEALTERNATENAMES					(variable)

	if TRUE, causes Logo to generate non-English words (from the
	Messages file) instead of TRUE, FALSE, END, etc.


Logo provides the following buried variables that can be used by programs:

LOGOVERSION						(variable)

	a real number indicating the Logo version number, e.g., 5.5

LOGOPLATFORM						(variable)

	one of the following words: wxWidgets, X11, Windows, or
	Unix-Nographics.



INTERNATIONALIZATION
====================

Berkeley Logo has limited support for non-English-speaking users.
Alas, there is no Unicode support, and high-bit-on ASCII codes work in
some contexts but not others.

If you want to translate Berkeley Logo for use with another language,
there are three main things you have to do:
	1. Primitive names
	2. Error (and other) messages
	3. Documentation

For primitive names, the easiest thing is to provide a startup file that
defines aliases for the English primitive names, using COPYDEF:
	COPYDEF "AVANT "FORWARD
This should take care of it, unless your language's name for one primitive
is spelled like the English name of a different primitive.  In that case
you have to turn REDEFP on and be sure to copy the non-conflicting name
before overwriting the conflicting one!

"Primitives" that are actually in the Logo library, of course, can just
be replaced or augmented with native-language-named Logo procedures and
filenames.

Of course Logo programs will still not look like your native language if
the word order is dramatically different, especially if you don't put
verbs before their objects.

For error messages, there is a file named Messages in the logolib directory
with texts of messages, one per line.  You can replace this with a file for
your own language.  Do not add, delete, or reorder lines; Logo finds messages
by line number.  The sequences %p, %s, and %t in these messages represent
variable parts of the message and should not be translated.  (%p PRINTs
the variable part, while %s SHOWs it -- that is, the difference is about
whether or not brackets are shown surrounding a list.  %t means that the
variable part is a C text string rather than a Logo object.)  If you want to
change the order of two variable parts (no reorderable message has more than
two), you would for example replace the line
	%p doesn't like %s as input
with
	%+s is a lousy input to %p
The plus sign tells the message printer to reverse the order; you must
reverse the order of %p and %s, if both are used, to match.  The plus
sign goes just after the first percent sign in the message, which might
not be at the beginning of the line.  The sequence \n in a message
represents a newline; don't be fooled into thinking that the "n" is part
of the following word.

Some messages appear twice in the file; this isn't a mistake.  The two
spaces before "to" in "I don't know how  to" aren't a mistake either.
The message containing just "%p" is for user-provided error messages
in THROW "ERROR.  The message "  in %s\n%s" is the part of all error
messages that indicates where the error occurred if it was inside a
procedure; you might want to change the word "in" to your language.
"%s defined\n" is what LOAD prints for each procedure defined if
the variable LOADNOISILY is TRUE.  "to %p\nend\n\n" is what EDIT puts in the
temporary file if you ask to edit a procedure that isn't already defined.

Also in the Messages file are lines containing only one word each; the
first of these is the word "true".  Some of these words are recognized by
Logo in user input; some are generated by Logo; some are both.  For example,
the words TRUE and FALSE are recognized as Boolean values by IF and IFELSE,
and are also generated by Logo as outputs from the primitive predicates
such as EQUALP.  The word END is recognized as the end of a procedure
definition, and may be generated when Logo reconstructs a procedure body
for PO or EDIT.  I've used capital letters in this paragraph for easier
reading, but the words in the Messages file should be in lower case.

If you replace these with non-English words, Logo will *recognize* both the
English names and your alternate names.  For example, if you replace the
word "true" with "vrai" then Logo will understand both of these:
	IF "TRUE [PRINT "YES]
	IF "VRAI [PRINT "YES]

The variable UseAlternateNames determines whether Logo will *generate*
other-language names -- for example, whether predicate functions return
the other-language alternates for TRUE and FALSE.  This variable is FALSE by
default, meaning that the English words will be generated.

You might wish to have English-named predicate functions generate English TRUE
and FALSE, while other-language-named predicates generate the alternate
words.  This can be done by leaving UseAlternateNames false, and instead of
defining the other-language predicates with COPYDEF, do it this way:

	to french.boolean :bool
	if equalp :bool "true [output "vrai]
	if equalp :bool "false [output "faux]
	output :bool	; shouldn't happen
	end

	to make.french.predicate :french :english :arity
	define :french `[[[inputs] ,[:arity]]
	                 [output french.boolean
				    apply ,[word "" :english] :inputs]]
	end

	? make.french.predicate "egal? "equal? 2
	? pr egal? 3 4
	faux
	? pr egal? 4 4
	vrai
	? pr equal? 3 4
	false
	? pr equal? 4 4
	true

The third input to make.french.predicate is the number of inputs that the
predicate expects.  This solution isn't quite perfect because the infix
predicates (=, <, >) will still output in English.  If you want them to
generate alternate-language words, set UseAlternateNames to TRUE instead.

Some of the words in this section of the Messages file are names of Logo
primitives (OUTPUT, STOP, GOTO, TAG, IF, IFELSE, TO, .MACRO).  To translate
these names, you must use COPYDEF as described earlier, in addition to
changing the names in Messages.  You should be consistent in these two steps.
Don't forget the period in ".macro"!

For documentation, there are two kinds: this manual and the help files.
The latter are generated automatically from this manual if you have a
Unix system, so in that case you need only translate this manual,
maintaining the format.  (The automatic helpfile generator notices
things like capital letters, tabs, hyphens, and equal signs at the
beginnings of lines.)  The program makehelp.c may require modification
because a few of the primitive names are special cases (e.g., LOG10 is
the only name with digits included).

If you don't have Unix tools, you can just translate each helpfile
individually.  A period in a primitive name is represented as a D in
the filename; there are no files for question marks because the HELP
command looks for the file named after the corresponding primitive
that ends in P.
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