Revision aeb0ab472296c0298c2b007c30af2705a75a89f8 authored by ST John on 18 June 2019, 09:46:26 UTC, committed by ST John on 18 June 2019, 09:48:10 UTC
transforms.py
# Copyright 2016 James Hensman, alexggmatthews
#
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and

import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf
import itertools

from . import settings
from .misc import vec_to_tri
from .core.base import ITransform

class Transform(ITransform):  # pylint: disable=W0223
def __call__(self, other_transform):
"""
Calling a Transform with another Transform results in a Chain of both.
The following are equivalent:
>>> Chain(t1, t2)
>>> t1(t2)
"""
if not isinstance(other_transform, Transform):
raise TypeError("transforms can only be chained with other transforms: "
"perhaps you want t.forward(x)")
return Chain(self, other_transform)

class Identity(Transform):
"""
The identity transform: y = x
"""
def forward_tensor(self, x):
return tf.identity(x)

def backward_tensor(self, y):
return tf.identity(y)

def forward(self, x):
return x

def backward(self, y):
return y

def log_jacobian_tensor(self, x):
return tf.zeros((1,), settings.float_type)

def __str__(self):
return '(none)'

class Chain(Transform):
"""
Chain two transformations together:
.. math::
y = t_1(t_2(x))
where y is the natural parameter and x is the free state
"""

def __init__(self, t1, t2):
self.t1 = t1
self.t2 = t2

def forward_tensor(self, x):
return self.t1.forward_tensor(self.t2.forward_tensor(x))

def backward_tensor(self, y):
return self.t2.backward_tensor(self.t1.backward_tensor(y))

def forward(self, x):
return self.t1.forward(self.t2.forward(x))

def backward(self, y):
return self.t2.backward(self.t1.backward(y))

def log_jacobian_tensor(self, x):
return self.t1.log_jacobian_tensor(self.t2.forward_tensor(x)) +\
self.t2.log_jacobian_tensor(x)

def __str__(self):
return "{} {}".format(self.t1.__str__(), self.t2.__str__())

class Exp(Transform):
r"""
The exponential transform:

y = \exp(x) + \epsilon

x is a free variable, y is always positive. The epsilon value (self.lower)
prevents the optimizer reaching numerical zero.
"""
def __init__(self, lower=1e-6):
self._lower = lower

def forward_tensor(self, x):
return tf.exp(x) + self._lower

def backward_tensor(self, y):
return tf.log(y - self._lower)

def forward(self, x):
return np.exp(x) + self._lower

def backward(self, y):
return np.log(y - self._lower)

def log_jacobian_tensor(self, x):
return tf.reduce_sum(x)

def __str__(self):
return 'Exp'

class Log1pe(Transform):
r"""
A transform of the form
.. math::

y = \log(1 + \exp(x))

x is a free variable, y is always positive.

This function is known as 'softplus' in tensorflow.
"""

def __init__(self, lower=1e-6):
"""
lower is a float that defines the minimum value that this transform can
take, default 1e-6. This helps stability during optimization, because
aggressive optimizers can take overly-long steps which lead to zero in
the transformed variable, causing an error.
"""
self._lower = lower

def forward(self, x):
"""
Implementation of softplus. Overflow avoided by use of the logaddexp function.
"""

def forward_tensor(self, x):
return tf.nn.softplus(x) + self._lower

def backward_tensor(self, y):
ys = tf.maximum(y - self._lower, tf.as_dtype(settings.float_type).min)
return ys + tf.log(-tf.expm1(-ys))

def log_jacobian_tensor(self, x):
return tf.negative(tf.reduce_sum(tf.nn.softplus(tf.negative(x))))

def backward(self, y):
r"""
Inverse of the softplus transform:
.. math::

x = \log( \exp(y) - 1)

The bound for the input y is [self._lower. inf[, self._lower is
subtracted prior to any calculations. The implementation avoids overflow
explicitly by applying the log sum exp trick:
.. math::

\log ( \exp(y) - \exp(0)) &= ys + \log( \exp(y-ys) - \exp(-ys)) \\
&= ys + \log( 1 - \exp(-ys)

ys = \max(0, y)

As y can not be negative, ys could be replaced with y itself.
However, in case :math:y=0 this results in np.log(0). Hence the zero is
replaced by a machine epsilon.
.. math::

ys = \max( \epsilon, y)

"""
ys = np.maximum(y - self._lower, np.finfo(settings.float_type).eps)
return ys + np.log(-np.expm1(-ys))

def __str__(self):
return '+ve'

class Logistic(Transform):
r"""
The logistic transform, useful for keeping variables constrained between the limits a and b:
.. math::

y = a + (b-a) s(x)
s(x) = 1 / (1 + \exp(-x))
"""
def __init__(self, a=0., b=1.):
if a >= b:
raise ValueError("a must be smaller than b")
self.a, self.b = float(a), float(b)

def forward_tensor(self, x):
ex = tf.exp(-x)
return self.a + (self.b - self.a) / (1. + ex)

def forward(self, x):
ex = np.exp(-x)
return self.a + (self.b - self.a) / (1. + ex)

def backward_tensor(self, y):
return -tf.log((self.b - self.a) / (y - self.a) - 1.)

def backward(self, y):
return -np.log((self.b - self.a) / (y - self.a) - 1.)

def log_jacobian_tensor(self, x):
return tf.reduce_sum(x - 2. * tf.log(tf.exp(x) + 1.) + np.log(self.b - self.a))

def __str__(self):
return "[{}, {}]".format(self.a, self.b)

class Rescale(Transform):
"""
A transform that can linearly rescale parameters:
.. math::
y = factor * x

Use Chain to combine this with another transform such as Log1pe:
Chain(Rescale(), otherTransform()) results in
y = factor * t(x)
Chain(otherTransform(), Rescale()) results in
y = t(factor * x)

This is useful for avoiding overly large or small scales in optimization/MCMC.

If you want a transform for a positive quantity of a given scale, you want
>>> Rescale(scale)(positive)
"""
def __init__(self, factor=1.0):
self.factor = float(factor)

def forward_tensor(self, x):
return x * self.factor

def forward(self, x):
return x * self.factor

def backward_tensor(self, y):
return y / self.factor

def backward(self, y):
return y / self.factor

def log_jacobian_tensor(self, x):
N = tf.cast(tf.reduce_prod(tf.shape(x)), dtype=settings.float_type)
factor = tf.cast(self.factor, dtype=settings.float_type)
log_factor = tf.log(factor)
return N * log_factor

def __str__(self):
return "{}*".format(self.factor)

class DiagMatrix(Transform):
"""
A transform to represent diagonal matrices.

The output of this transform is a N x dim x dim array of diagonal matrices.
The constructor argument dim specifies the size of the matrices.

To make a constraint over positive-definite diagonal matrices, chain this
transform with a positive transform. For example, to get posdef matrices of size 2x2:
t = DiagMatrix(2)(positive)

"""

def __init__(self, dim=1):
self.dim = dim

def forward(self, x):
# create diagonal matrices
m = np.zeros((x.size * self.dim)).reshape(-1, self.dim, self.dim)
x = x.reshape(-1, self.dim)
m[(np.s_[:],) + np.diag_indices(x.shape[1])] = x
return m

def backward(self, y):
# Return diagonals of matrices
if len(y.shape) not in (2, 3) or not (y.shape[-1] == y.shape[-2] == self.dim):
raise ValueError("shape of input does not match this transform")
return y.reshape((-1, self.dim, self.dim)).diagonal(offset=0, axis1=1, axis2=2).flatten()

def backward_tensor(self, y):
reshaped = tf.reshape(y, shape=(-1, self.dim, self.dim))
return tf.reshape(tf.matrix_diag_part(reshaped), shape=[-1])

def forward_tensor(self, x):
# create diagonal matrices
return tf.matrix_diag(tf.reshape(x, (-1, self.dim)))

def log_jacobian_tensor(self, x):
return tf.zeros((1,), settings.float_type)

def __str__(self):
return 'DiagMatrix'

class LowerTriangular(Transform):
"""
A transform of the form

y = vec_to_tri(x)

x is the 'packed' version of shape num_matrices x (N**2 + N)/2
y is the 'unpacked' version of shape num_matrices x N x N.

:param N: the size of the final lower triangular matrices.
:param num_matrices: Number of matrices to be stored.
:param squeeze: If num_matrices == 1, drop the redundant axis.

:raises ValueError: squeezing is impossible when num_matrices > 1.
"""

def __init__(self, N, num_matrices=1, squeeze=False):
"""
Create an instance of LowerTriangular transform.
"""
self.N = N
self.num_matrices = num_matrices  # We need to store this for reconstruction.
self.squeeze = squeeze

if self.squeeze and (num_matrices != 1):
raise ValueError("cannot squeeze matrices unless num_matrices is 1.")

def forward(self, x):
"""
Transforms from the packed to unpacked representations (numpy)

:param x: packed numpy array. Must have shape self.num_matrices x triangular_number
:return: Reconstructed numpy array y of shape self.num_matrices x N x N
"""
fwd = np.zeros((self.num_matrices, self.N, self.N), settings.float_type)
indices = np.tril_indices(self.N, 0)
z = np.zeros(len(indices[0])).astype(int)
for i in range(self.num_matrices):
fwd[(z + i,) + indices] = x[i, :]
return fwd.squeeze(axis=0) if self.squeeze else fwd

def backward(self, y):
"""
Transforms a series of triangular matrices y to the packed representation x (numpy)

:param y: unpacked numpy array y, shape self.num_matrices x N x N
:return: packed numpy array, x, shape self.num_matrices x triangular number
"""
if self.squeeze:
y = y[None, :, :]
ind = np.tril_indices(self.N)
return np.vstack([y_i[ind] for y_i in y])

def forward_tensor(self, x):
"""
Transforms from the packed to unpacked representations (tf.tensors)

:param x: packed tensor. Must have shape self.num_matrices x triangular_number
:return: Reconstructed tensor y of shape self.num_matrices x N x N
"""
fwd = vec_to_tri(x, self.N)
return tf.squeeze(fwd, axis=0) if self.squeeze else fwd

def backward_tensor(self, y):
"""
Transforms a series of triangular matrices y to the packed representation x (tf.tensors)

:param y: unpacked tensor with shape self.num_matrices, self.N, self.N
:return: packed tensor with shape self.num_matrices, (self.N**2 + self.N) / 2
"""
if self.squeeze:
y = tf.expand_dims(y, axis=0)
indices = np.vstack(np.tril_indices(self.N)).T
indices = itertools.product(np.arange(self.num_matrices), indices)
indices = np.array([np.hstack(x) for x in indices])
triangular = tf.gather_nd(y, indices)
return tf.reshape(triangular, [self.num_matrices, (self.N**2 + self.N) // 2])

def log_jacobian_tensor(self, x):
"""
This function has a jacobian of one, since it is simply an identity mapping (with some packing/unpacking)
"""
return tf.zeros((1,), settings.float_type)

def __str__(self):
return "LoTri->vec"

positive = Log1pe()

def positiveRescale(scale):
"""
The appropriate joint transform for positive parameters of a given scale

This is a convenient shorthand for

constrained = scale * log(1 + exp(unconstrained))
"""
return Rescale(scale)(positive)


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